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Bacterial DNA Methylation and Methylomes

  • Josep CasadesúsEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 945)

Abstract

Formation of C5-methylcytosine, N4-methylcytosine, and N6-methyladenine in bacterial genomes is postreplicative and involves transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosyl-methionine to a base embedded in a specific DNA sequence context. Most bacterial DNA methyltransferases belong to restriction-modification systems; in addition, “solitary” or “orphan” DNA methyltransferases are frequently found in the genomes of bacteria and phage. Base methylation can affect the interaction of DNA-binding proteins with their cognate sites, either by a direct effect (e.g., steric hindrance) or by changes in DNA topology. In both Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, the roles of DNA base methylation are especially well known for N6-methyladenine, including control of chromosome replication, nucleoid segregation, postreplicative correction of DNA mismatches, cell cycle-coupled transcription, formation of bacterial cell lineages, and regulation of bacterial virulence. Technical procedures that permit genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation are nowadays expanding our knowledge of the extent, evolution, and physiological significance of bacterial DNA methylation.

Keywords

Cluster Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat Chromosome Replication SMRT Sequencing GATC Site IS10 Transposase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

AdoMet

S-Adenosyl-L-methionine

CcrM

Cell cycle-regulated methylase

Cori

Replication origin of the Caulobacter chromosome

CRISP-R

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats

IPD

Interpulse duration

LD50

Median lethal dose

Mod

Modification gene in restriction-modification systems

oriC

Replication origin of the E. coli chromosome

SMALR

Single-molecule modification analysis of long reads

SMRT

Single-molecule real time

SPI-1

Salmonella pathogenicity island 1

UAS

Upstream regulatory region

VSP

Very-short-patch

Notes

Acknowledgments

I thank Ignacio Cota, María A. Sánchez-Romero, and Lucía García-Pastor for discussions and Modesto Carballo, Laura Navarro, and Cristina Reyes (CITIUS) for assistance. Research in my laboratory is supported by grants BIO2013-44220-R from the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad of Spain (MINECO) and the European Regional Fund, PCIN-2015-131 by MINECO and Infect-ERA, and CVI-5879 from the Consejería de Innovación, Ciencia y Empresa, Junta de Andalucía, Spain.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Departamento de GenéticaUniversidad de SevillaSevilleSpain

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