Advertisement

The In-Employment Conditions of Chinese Seafarers

  • Pengfei Zhang
Chapter
  • 172 Downloads

Abstract

When seafarers are employed, they are faced with a variety of in-employment conditions. The rights and obligations of seafarers and their employers will be subject to the seafarers’ employment contract and to the compulsory requirements under national laws and regulations. In this chapter, the term ‘in-employment conditions’ refers to the other aspect being compared with pre-employment conditions. To certain extent, seafarers’ employment relationship are primarily determined by the terms and conditions in their contract. The seafarer’s employment contract is therefore of essential importance to the seafarer, and all seafarers have the right to have a signed contract as evidence of their employment relationship. Moreover, seafarers’ in-employment conditions rely on the proper implementation of the terms and conditions of the contract.

Keywords

Minimum Wage Collective Bargaining Social Security System Employment Contract Labour Contract 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. ACFTU. (2008). The introduction of Seamen’s Club in Qinhuangdao City. Available at: http://stclub.acftu.org/template/1/file.jsp?cid=22&aid=2107. Accessed 02 May 2014.
  2. ACFTU. (2011). The background of Chinese seafarers’ collective labour contract. Available at: http://acftu.workercn.cn/c/2011/04/06/110406144754399023228.html. Accessed 16 April 2015 [in Chinese].
  3. Andersen, P. P., & Cheng, F. (2009). Case studies in food policy for developing countries. Vol. 1. Policies for health, nutrition, food construction, and poverty (p. 231). New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Barth, S. (2006). Hospitality law: Managing legal issues in the hospitality industry (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Wiley.Google Scholar
  5. CBM. (2004). China briefing: Business guide to the Greater Pearl River Delta. Hong Kong: China Briefing Media Ltd.Google Scholar
  6. CFR. (2003). L.S.A., List of C.F.R. sections affected. Washington: Office of the Federal Register National Archives and Records Administration.Google Scholar
  7. Chapman, P. K. (1992). Trouble on board: The plight of international seafarers. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  8. CLB. (2008). China labour bulletin. A turning point for China’s trade unions. Available at: http://www.clb.org.hk/en/content/turning-point-china%E2%80%99s-trade-unions. Accessed 15 April 2015.
  9. CRSL. (2012). Shipbuilding market overview. London: Clarkson Research Service Limited.Google Scholar
  10. Cunningham, W. V. (2007). Minimum wages and social policy: Lessons from developing countries. Washington, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dauer, R. R. M. (2009). The merchant vessel: A sociological analysis. Barcelona: Edicions UPC.Google Scholar
  12. DeSombre, E. R. (2006). Flagging standards: Globalisation and environmental, safety and labour regulations at sea. Cambridge: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  13. DeSombre, E. R. (2009). Voluntary agreements and the shipping industry. In M. Potoski & A. Prakash (Eds.), Voluntary programs: A club theory perspective (pp. 133–156). Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  14. Dimitrova, D. N. (2010). Seafarers’ rights in the globalised maritime industry. London: Kluwer Law International.Google Scholar
  15. Dowlen, D. D. (2008). Enemy in my bed: Triumphs of a military war bride. Wheaton: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  16. Duckworth, A. D. (1956). Crew accommodation for the improved type of dry cargo vessel. Transaction of the Royal Institute of Naval Architects, 98, 432–442.Google Scholar
  17. Ellis, N., Sampson, H., Acejo, I., Tang, L., Turgo, N., & Zhao, Z. (2012). Seafarer accommodation on contemporary cargo ships. Cardiff: Seafarers International Research Centre (SIRC).Google Scholar
  18. Fan, C. (2008). China on the move: migration, the state, and the household. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Feldstein, M. (2000). Social security pension reform in China. In J. Z. Yin, S. Lin, & D. F. Gates (Eds.), Social security reform: Options for China. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.Google Scholar
  20. Force, R., Yiannopoulous, A. N., & Davies, M. (2006). Admiralty and maritime law. Abridged Edition. Washington: Beard Books.Google Scholar
  21. Fricke, P. H. (1972). The social structure of crews of British dry cargo merchant ships: A study of the organisation and environment of an occupation. Cardiff: Department of Maritime Studies, University of Wales Institute of Science and Technology.Google Scholar
  22. Galic, S., Lušić, Z., & Pušić, D. (2012). Seafarers market. International Journal of New Trends in Arts, Sports & Science Education, 1(3), 33–39.Google Scholar
  23. Goffman, E. (1961). Asylums: Essays on the social situation of mental patients and other inmates. New York: Doubleday Anchor Books.Google Scholar
  24. GOV. (1953). Labour insurance regulations of the PRC. Available at: http://www.bjld.gov.cn/LDJAPP/search/fgdetail.jsp?no=2025. Accessed 17 April 2015 [in Chinese].
  25. GOV. (2004a). The labour insurance regulations of the People’s Republic of China. Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/ziliao/2004-12/17/content_2347271.htm. Accessed 5 March 2013 [in Chinese].
  26. GOV. (2004b). The provisions on the minimum wages. Available at: http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content/2004/content_62936.htm. Accessed 17 April 2015.
  27. Guthrie, D. (1999). Dragon in a three-piece suit: The emergence of capitalism in China. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Halsbury. (1979). Halsbury’s laws of England (4th ed.). London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  29. Harter, S., & Preaus, E. R. (2001). Admiralty and maritime law: The use of bonds and other security devices in the legal framework of international shipping. In T. C. Kazlow & B. C. King (Eds.), The law of miscellaneous and commercial surety bonds. Chicago: American Bar Association.Google Scholar
  30. Huang, X. (2013). Collective wage bargaining and state-corporatism in contemporary China. In J. Hsu & R. Hasmath (Eds.), The Chinese Corporatist State: Adaption, survival and resistance. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. IBF. (2003). International Bargaining Forum. Available at: http://www.imec.org.uk/ibf.html. Accessed 13 April 2013.
  32. ICESCR. (1966). International covenant on economic, social and cultural rights. Available at: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx. Accessed 13 May 2015.
  33. ILO. (1926). Seamen’s articles of agreement: collection of laws and regulations on the engagement, dismissal, repatriation and discipline of seamen. Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  34. ILO. (2001a). The impact on seafarers’ living and working conditions of changes in the structure of the shipping industry: Report for discussion at the 29th Session of the Joint Maritime Commission. Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  35. ILO. (2001b). Social security: A new consensus. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_protect/---secsoc/documents/publication/wcms_209311.pdf. Accessed 3 May 2014.
  36. ILO. (2004). Towards a fair deal for contracted workers in the global economy, ILO, 92nd Session. Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  37. ILO & SIRC. (2004). The global seafarer: Living and working conditions in a globalised industry. Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  38. ILO (2005). Adoption of an instrument to consolidate maritime labour standards, Report I (1A). International Labour Conference, 94th (Maritime) Session, International Labour Office, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  39. ILO. (2015). Outcome of the meeting of experts concerning the seafarers’ identity documents convention (Revised), 2003 (No. 185). Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  40. IMEC. (2013). Pay negotiations: IBF central negotiations. Available at: http://www.imec.org.uk/ibf/pay-negotiations.html. Accessed 13 April 2013.
  41. ISF. (2006). ISF Annual Survey of Seafarers’ Wages and Employment Cost 2006. London: International Shipping Federation.Google Scholar
  42. ITF. (2005). About the FOC campaign. Available at: http://www.itfseafarers.org/FOC_campaign.cfm. Accessed 19 April 2015.
  43. Keefe, J. (2014). Seafarer shore leave: MLC business, or not? Available at: http://www.marinelink.com/news/seafarer-business-leave378034.aspx. Accessed 9 January 2015.
  44. Lin, L. (2010). The rise of rights and protections for the disadvantaged. In C. Wang & D. Cai (Eds.), China’s journey toward the rule of law. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers and VSP.Google Scholar
  45. Liu, C. (2014). A study on seafarers’ minimum wages. Unpublished LLM thesis, Dalian Maritime University [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  46. Liu, M., Li, C., & Kim, S. (2011). Chinese trade unions in transition. In P. Sheldon, S. Kim, Y. Li, & M. Warner (Eds.), China’s changing workplace: Dynamism, diversity and disparity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  47. Maguire, P. (2014). HR for small business for dummies. Milton: Wiley Publishing Australia Pty Ltd.Google Scholar
  48. McConnell, M. L., Devlin, D., & Henry, C. D. (2011). The maritime labour convention, 2006: A legal primer to an emerging international regime. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McDermott, P. (2000). Maritime securities. In M. White (Ed.), Australian maritime law (2nd ed.). Sydney: The Federation Press.Google Scholar
  50. Meek, M., & Ward, N. (1973). Accommodation in ships. Transactions of the Royal Institute of Naval Architects, 115, 201–218.Google Scholar
  51. MLC (2006). Maritime Labour Convention 2006. Available at http://www.ilo.org/global/standards/maritime-labourconvention/lang--en/index.htm. Accessed 8 March 2013.
  52. MOHRSS. (2004). The provisions on collective contract. Available at: http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content/2004/content_62937.htm. Accessed 16 April 2015.
  53. Mou, A. (2011). To protect maritime labour relations: The interview to Linqing, Zhu, the Vice-Chairman of the Chinese Seamen and Construction Workers’ Union. Trade Union Information, 6, 04–05 [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  54. OECD. (2010). Tackling inequalities in Brazil, China, India and South Africa: The role of labour market and social policies. Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  55. Park, K. (2011). Shipbuilding: The market China hasn’t cracked. Available at: http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/shipbuilding-the-market-china-hasnt-cracked-10132011.html. Accessed 27 April 2013.
  56. Pentsov, D. A. (2008). Standards of the International Labour Organization (ILO). In I. C. Varotsi & D. A. Pentsov (Eds.), Maritime work law fundamentals: Responsible shipowners, reliable seafarers. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  57. Potter, P. B. (2001). The Chinese legal system: Globalisation and local legal culture. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  58. PTMC (2005). Compendium of proposed amendments to the draft consolidated maritime labour convention, 2006. Available at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/ptmc05/ptmc05-2.pdf. Accessed 20 April 2013.
  59. Pu, Y., & Cheng, X. (2015). Export trade, labour productivity and wage level-empirical research based on the data of Chinese export sectors. Economic Survey, 1, 61–65.Google Scholar
  60. Schoenbaum, T. J. (2001). Admiralty and maritime law (3rd ed.). St. Paul: West Group Publishing.Google Scholar
  61. Shen, J. (2007). Labour disputes and their resolution in China. Oxford: Chandos Publishing (Oxford) Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. SOL. (2015). The trend of China crew’s salary index. Available at: http://crew.sol.com.cn/ccsi/ccsiindex.asp. Accessed 18 April 2015 [in Chinese].
  63. Staniland, H. (2013). Protecting the wages of seafarers held hostage by pirates: the need to reform the law. International Journal of Public Law and Policy, 3(4), 345–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Taylor, B., Chang, K., & Li, Q. (2003). Industrial relations in China. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  65. Tian, X. (2006). Social security in China. Beijing: Wuzhou Propagation Publisher.Google Scholar
  66. Tian, Y. (2014). The international policy dissemination and national policies transformation: The Chinese path of collective bargaining. World Economics and Politics, 7, 118–138 [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  67. Wang, D. (2004). Social security white paper of China. Available at: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/APCITY/UNPAN019944.pdf. Accessed 6 March 2013.
  68. Wang, F. (2010). Conflict, resistance and the transformation of the hukou system. In E. J. Perry & M. Selden (Eds.), Chinese society: Change, conflict and resistance (3rd ed.). Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  69. Wang, K., & Zhong, G. (2014). A study on the labour right protection for construction workers. Science & Technology View, 26, 137–138.Google Scholar
  70. Wang, W. (2011). The problems in the Chinese seafarers’ social security programme and countermeasures. Shipping Management, 33(11), 12–28 [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  71. Xiao, Y. (2013). The impact of QE3 on the Chinese maritime industry. China Maritime, 11, 26–27 [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  72. Yusuf, S., & Nabeshima, K. (2006). China’s development priorities. Washington: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 54seaman. (2015). A review of the effect of accommodation design on mental health and well-being of seafarers on cargo ships. Available at: http://www.54seaman.com/template/newsView.asp?id=8861. Accessed 19 July 2015.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pengfei Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Southampton Solent UniversitySouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations