Advertisement

The Pre-employment Conditions of Chinese Seafarers

  • Pengfei Zhang
Chapter

Abstract

The sea has been the world’s greatest highway and can be used by all countries. However, the power of the sea and the weather are still uncontrollable, and seafaring is one of the world’s most dangerous occupations (Ozcayir 2001, p. 35). First, working aboard a ship is unlike occupations on land. Seafarers are exposed daily to ‘an unusual hazardous situation, natural disasters, highly risky and dangerous working environment and poor living conditions’ (Dimitrova 2010, p. 32). In addition, seafarers are at a great distance from shore, it is therefore very difficult for them to obtain external assistance, and they have to rely primarily on themselves when the ship is in an emergency situation. Seafaring is therefore considered as one of the most dangerous professions ‘involving high fatality’, and seafarers are working in an ‘extremely complex and strenuous environment’ (Zevallos et al. 2014).

Keywords

Trade Union Medical Examination Medical Certificate Placement Service Maritime Industry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Alli, B. O. (2008). Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety (2nd ed.). Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  2. Chen, J. (2008). Chinese law: Context and transformation. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.Google Scholar
  3. Chi, H. (2005). Comparative study on seafarer labour market of China and main seafarer export states. Journal of Zhejiang Ocean University (Natural Science), 24(4), 339–345.Google Scholar
  4. Chinanews. (2010). The great progress of seafarers’ training in Zhejiang Province. Available at: http://www.chinanews.com/sh/2010/09-18/2541165.shtml. Accessed 26 October 2013.
  5. CNSS. (2013). The special report of China Seafarer Conference of 2013. Available at: http://www.cnss.com.cn/html/oldspecial/2013/0628/2013seafarer/index.html. Accessed 26 October 2013 [in Chinese].
  6. CNSS. (2014). The False Medical Examination in the Chinese Maritime Industry. Available at: http://www.cnss.com.cn/html/2014/cydt_0527/151151.html. Accessed 4 July 2015.
  7. Coles, R., & Watt, E. (2009). Ship registration: Law and practice (2nd ed.). London: Informa Law.Google Scholar
  8. Couper, A. (2009). Sailors and traders: A maritime history of the pacific peoples. Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  9. CSCU. (2010). The Workshop of the Maritime Labour Convention 2006. Available at: http://hyjs.acftu.org/template/5/file.jsp?aid=7262&keyword=ITF. Accessed 14 April 2013 [in Chinese].
  10. CSCU. (2011). The Construction of Chinese Seamen’s Union. Available at: http://acftu.workercn.cn/c/2011/04/06/110406144242707813124_2.html. Accessed 13 April 2013 [in Chinese].
  11. Dimitrova, D. N. (2010). Seafarers’ rights in the globalised maritime industry. London: Kluwer Law International.Google Scholar
  12. Edulife. (2012). The list of seafarers’ education and training institutions. Available at: http://sy.edulife.com.cn/school/sychuanyuan/fulltext-25324.html. Accessed 26 October 2013.
  13. EMSA. (2013). Training of seafarers of European Maritime Safety Agency. Available at: http://www.emsa.europa.eu/implementation-tasks/visits-and-inspections/training-of-seafarers.html. Accessed 30 October 2013.
  14. Fitzpatrick, D., & Anderson, M. (2005). Seafarers’ rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Gekara, V. O. (2008). Globalisation, state strategies and the shipping labour market: The UK’s response to declining seafaring skills. Cardiff: School of Social Sciences of Cardiff University.Google Scholar
  16. GOV. (2013). 650,000 Chinese seafarers transport more than 93% foreign trade in China. Available at: http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2013-06/24/content_2433227.htm. Accessed 25 October 2013 [in Chinese].
  17. Grime, P. (2014). In this issue of occupational medicine. Occupational Medicine, 64(4), 227–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Guidelines. (2009). The guidelines for flag state inspections under the Maritime Labour Convention 2006. Geneva: International Labour Office. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/global/standards/maritime-labour-convention/WCMS_101788/lang--en/index.htm. Accessed 22 March 2013.
  19. HLTWG. (2002). Final Report of Tripartite Subgroup of the High-level Tripartite Working Group on Maritime Labour Standards (First Meeting). Geneva: International Labour Organization. Available at: http://ilo-mirror.library.cornell.edu/public/english/dialogue/sector/techmeet/stwgmls02/stwgmls-r.pdf. Accessed 16 March 2013.Google Scholar
  20. ILO. (2013). Guidelines on the Medical Examinations of Seafarers. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_dialogue/---sector/documents/normativeinstrument/wcms_174794.pdf. Accessed 1 November 2013.
  21. ILO C016. (1921). Medical Examination of Young Persons (Sea) Convention, 1921. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:C016. Accessed 18 March 2013.
  22. ILO C073. (1946). Medical Examination (Seafarers) Convention, 1946. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:12100:0::NO::P12100_ILO_CODE:C073. Accessed 18 March 2013
  23. ILO/IMO/JMS. (2011). Proposed revised guidelines on the Medical Examinations of Seafarers. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_dialogue/@sector/documents/meetingdocument/wcms_162824.pdf. Accessed 18 March 2013.
  24. IMHA. (2012). International Maritime Health Association. Newsletter, January 2012.Google Scholar
  25. Imhasly, B. (2007). Goodbye to Gandhi: Travels in the New India. New Delhi: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  26. IMO STCW. (2013). International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 and the White List. Available at: http://www5.imo.org/SharePoint/contents.asp?doc_id=651&topic_id=257#26. Accessed 17 March 2013.Google Scholar
  27. IMO. (2013). Training and Certification. Available at: http://www.imo.org/OurWork/HumanElement/TrainingCertification/Pages/Default.aspx. Accessed 6 November 2013.
  28. ISM. (2010). ISM Code and Guidelines on Implementation of the ISM Code 2010. Available at: http://www.imo.org/OurWork/HumanElement/SafetyManagement/Pages/ISMCode.aspx. Accessed 13 November 2013.
  29. ITF. (2010). STCW, a Guide for Seafarers: Taking into Account the 2010 Manila Amendments. Available at: http://www.mptusa.com/pdf/STCW_guide_english.pdf. Accessed 13 November 2013.
  30. Iversen, R. (2010). The mental health of seafarers: A brief review. In Maritime Medicine–An International Challenge. 11th International Symposium on Maritime Health (Vol. 6, pp. 10–52).Google Scholar
  31. Iversen, R. (2012). The mental health of seafarers – Good news and bad news. Available at: http://www.bairdmaritime.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=articleid=12030:the-mental-health-of-seafarers-good-news-and-bad-news&catid=103:magazine-editorials&Itemid=124. Accessed 1 November 2013.
  32. Jiang, P. (2005). Introduction to China chapter. In D. Fitzratrick & M. Anderson (Eds.), Seafarers’ rights. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Jiang, Y. (2001). A study on the Chinese system of seafarers’ recruitment and placement. Contemporary Law Review, 6, 67–70 [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  34. Li, Y. (2011). The Work Report of Chinese Seafarers’ Union, 2010. Available at: http://hyjs.acftu.org/template/5/file.jsp?aid=7431&keyword=ITF. Accessed 14 April 2013 [in Chinese].
  35. Li, B. (2004). On the Nation’s role and status on the realising the social security protection of the seafarers. Journal of Dalian Maritime University (Social Sciences Edition), 3(3), 23–26 [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  36. Li, D., & Wang, J. (2007). The impact and countermeasures of ratification of Maritime Labour Convention 2006. Navigation of China, 72(3), 49–53 [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  37. Li, K., & Ingram, C. W. N. (2002). Maritime law and policy in China. London: Cavendish Publishing.Google Scholar
  38. Li, Y. (2006). Protect seafarers’ rights and promote the development of maritime industry: The interview to Ziheng Wu, the Chairman of the Chinese Seamen and Construction Workers’ Union. China Ocean Shipping Monthly, 5, 162–164 [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  39. Liu, S. (2008). STCW Convention and its Amendments will enter into force on 1 January 2008. World Shipping, 31(1), 52 [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  40. LNMSA. (2013). The World’s Seafarers’ Day celebrated in Liaoning. Available at: http://www.moc.gov.cn/zizhan/zhishuJG/haishiju/tupianxinwen/201306/t20130625_1438273.html. Accessed 25 October 2013 [in Chinese].
  41. McConnell, M. L., Devlin, D., & Henry, C. D. (2011). The Maritime Labour Convention, 2006: A legal primer to an emerging international regime. Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McNaughton, W. L., & Lazar, J. (1954). Industrial relations and the government. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  43. MOT/AQSIQ. (2013). The Joint Notice of MOT and AQSIQ with regard to the Medical Examination of Chinese Seafarers’ on board International Ships. Available at: http://www.moc.gov.cn/zfxxgk/bzsdw/bhsj/201307/t20130730_1458263.html. Accessed 13 November 2013 [in Chinese].
  44. MSA. (2009). The Notice about denouncement of 169 maritime normative documents on 30 December 2009. Available at: http://wenku.baidu.com/view/d653190e6c85ec3a87c2c563.html. Accessed 17 March 2013 [in Chinese].
  45. MSA. (2014). The Information of Chinese Seafarers. Available at: http://www.msa.gov.cn/Notice/Notice/954cfa3d-3fc2-4f1b-9b06-b78d194b59d5. Accessed 29 June 2014 [in Chinese].
  46. MSA. (2015). The Big Data of Chinese Seafarers. Available at: http://www.msa.gov.cn/Seafarersday2015/dashuju.html. Accessed 03 July 2015 [in Chinese].
  47. MSA-231. (2012). The list of Designated Hospitals and Duly Qualified Medical Practitioners for Seafarers’ Medical Examination. Available at: http://www.msa.gov.cn/Notice/Notice/80a10d08-f63c-4a32-a53e-e4adc7dde5df. Accessed 19 March 2013 [in Chinese].
  48. Nielsen, D., & Roberts, S. (1999). Fatalities among the world’s merchant seafarers (1990–1994). Marine Policy, 23(1), 71–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. OECD. (2010). Tackling inequalities in Brazil, China, India and South Africa: The role of labour market and social policies. OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  50. Ozcayir, Z. O. (2001). Port state control. London: Informa Professional.Google Scholar
  51. Potgens, F. (2006). Income from International Private Employment: An analysis of Article 15 of the OECD model. Amsterdam: IBFD.Google Scholar
  52. Qi, D. (2013). Chinese working class and trade unions: Transformation and predicament in the reform era. In G. Wang & Y. Zheng (Eds.), China: Development and governance. Singapore: World Scientific.Google Scholar
  53. Roberts, S. E., & Hansen, H. L. (2002). An analysis of the causes of mortality among seafarers in the British merchant fleet (1986–1995) and recommendations for their reduction. Occupational Medicine, 52(4), 195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Saarni, M. (2002). Medical examination of seafarers–Who is fit for work at sea? Medicina Maritima, 2(5), 299–306.Google Scholar
  55. Shen, G., Zhao, M., & Li, L. (2005). Chinese seafarers, a study on Chinese seafarers’ working and personal lives. Shanghai: Shanghai University Publishing House [in Chinese].Google Scholar
  56. Shipman. (2012). Seafarers’ registration reaches 850,000, the number one in China. Available at: http://www.shipman.org.cn/forum.php?mod=viewthread&tid=319288&page=1&extra=. Accessed 25 October 2013.
  57. Standards JT2025-93. (1993). The Compulsory Industry Standard JT2025-93 for Seafarers’ Medical Examination. Available at: http://wenku.baidu.com/view/30ffa26d7e21af45b307a8bb.html. Accessed 19 March 2013 [in Chinese].
  58. STCW. (1978). The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, as amended between 1978 and 2010. Available at: http://www.imo.org/OurWork/HumanElement/trainingcertification/pages/stcw-convention.aspx. Accessed 17 March 2013.
  59. Taylor, B., Chang, K., & Li, Q. (2003). Industrial relations in China. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  60. UN. (1966). International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966. Available at: http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx. Accessed 2 May 2015.
  61. UNHCHR. (2003). Convention on the rights of the child. Haiti: Committee on the Rights of the Child.Google Scholar
  62. Wang, M. (2011). The First Chinese Industrial Collective Contract Will achieve Full coverage in 2012. Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/fortune/2011-04/06/c_121272825.htm. Accessed 16 April 2015.
  63. Wanzheng. (2014). The Latest List of Hospitals for Seafarers’ Medical Examination. Available at: http://wanzhengcrew.com/news_view.asp?id=376&classid=28. Accessed 05 July 2014.
  64. Wu, B., Shen, G., & Li, L. (2007). The transformation of the Chinese labour market for seafarers. Cardiff: Seafarers International Research Centre (SIRC).Google Scholar
  65. Xinhua. (2002). Labour and Social Security in China. Available at: http://news.xinhuanet.com/zhengfu/2002-11/18/content_633162.htm. Accessed 22 February 2015 [in Chinese].
  66. Yuan, Z. (2013). China: Promoting equity as a basic education policy. In Y. Wang (Ed.), Education policy reform trends in G20 members (pp. 359–376). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Yun, Z. (2007). Our hope: The interview to Wei Wei, the Director of the Chinese Seamen and Construction Workers’ Union (CSCU). China Ocean Shipping Monthly, 4, 46–47.Google Scholar
  68. Zeng, X. (2006). Freedom of the employee in bargaining with the employer for wage rates. In X. Li (Ed.), Assessing the extent of China’s marketisation. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  69. Zevallos, J., Hulshof, C. T., Mutsaerts, T., & Sluiter, J. K. (2014). Outcomes of seafarer work fitness qualifications in the Netherlands. Occupational Medicine, 64(4), 267–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Zhu, Y., & Wang, X. (2007). Comparative analysis on certificate of competency and certificate of qualification for seafarers. Journal of Dalian Maritime University (Social Science Edition), 6(2), 58–60 [in Chinese].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pengfei Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Southampton Solent UniversitySouthamptonUK

Personalised recommendations