Advertisement

Cross-Sectional Imaging for the Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules and Cancer

  • James X. WuEmail author
  • Masha Livhits
  • Ali Sepahdari
  • Michael W. Yeh
Chapter

Abstract

Neck ultrasound is the primary imaging modality in the evaluation of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer, and no further imaging is indicated in most cases. Additional cross-sectional imaging, including computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), can be useful in a minority of select patients. Supplemental cross-sectional imaging is usually indicated when the disease cannot be completely imaged by ultrasound, when there is evidence of invasion of aerodigestive structures, or there is a lack of ultrasound expertise.

Keywords

Preoperative imaging Thyroid cancer Neck ultrasound Cross-sectional CT MRI 

References

  1. 1.
    Cooper DS, Doherty GM, Haugen BR, Hauger BR, Kloos RT, Lee SL, et al. Revised American Thyroid Association management guidelines for patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2009;19(11):1167–214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haugen BR, Alexander EK, Bible KC, Doherty G, Mandel SJ, Nikiforov YE, et al. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for adult patients with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Thyroid. 2016;26(1):1–133.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yoon DY, Chang SK, Choi CS, Yun EJ, Seo YL, Nam ES, et al. The prevalence and significance of incidental thyroid nodules identified on computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2008;32(5):810–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohen MS, Arslan N, Dehdashti F, Doherty GM, Lairmore TC, Brunt LM, et al. Risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentalomas identified by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Surgery. 2001;130(6):941–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Youserm D, Huang T, Loevner LA, Langlotz CP. Clinical and economic impact of incidental thyroid lesions found with CT and MR. Am J Neuroradiol. 1997;18(8):1423–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shetty SK, Maher MM, Hahn PF, Halpern EF, Aquino SL. Significance of incidental thyroid lesions detected on CT: correlation among CT, sonography, and pathology. Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187(5):1349–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Are C, Hsu JF, Schoder H, Shah JP, Larson SM, Shaha AR. FDG-PET detected thyroid incidentalomas: need for further investigation? Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14(1):239–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jin J, Wilhelm SM, McHenry CR. Incidental thyroid nodule: patterns of diagnosis and rate of malignancy. Am J Surg. 2009;197(3):320–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cibas ES, Ali SZ. The Bethesda system for reporting thyroid cytopathology. Am J Clin Pathol. 2009;132(5):658–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang N, Zhai H, Lu Y. Is fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography useful for the thyroid nodules with indeterminate fine needle aspiration biopsy? A meta-analysis of the literature. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013;42:38.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yeh MW, Bauer AJ, Bernet VA, Ferris RL, Loevner LA, Mandel SJ, et al. American Thyroid Association Statement on preoperative imaging for thyroid cancer surgery. Thyroid. 2015;25(1):3–14.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Andersen PE, Kinsella J, Loree TR, Shaha AR, Shah JP. Differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid with extrathyroidal extension. Am J Surg. 1995;170(5):467–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    McCaffrey TV, Bergstralh EJ, Hay ID. Locally invasive papillary thyroid carcinoma: 1940–1990. Head Neck. 1994;16(2):165–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Seo YL, Yoon DY, Lim KJ, Cha JH, Yun EJ, Choi CS, et al. Locally advanced thyroid cancer: can CT help in prediction of extrathyroidal invasion to adjacent structures? AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2010;195(3):W240–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Padovani RP, Kasamatsu TS, Nakabashi CC, Camacho CP, Andreoni DM, Malouf EZ, et al. One month is sufficient for urinary iodine to return to its baseline value after the use of water-soluble iodinated contrast agents in post-thyroidectomy patients requiring radioiodine therapy. Thyroid. 2012;22(9):926–30.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yang L, Krefting I, Gorovets A, Marzella L, Kaiser J, Boucher R, et al. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and class labeling of gadolinium-based contrast agents by the Food and Drug Administration. Radiology. 2012;265(1):248–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Noda Y, Kanematsu M, Goshima S, Kondo H, Watanabe H, Kawada H, et al. MRI of the thyroid for differential diagnosis of benign thyroid nodules and papillary carcinomas. Am J Roentgenol. 2015;204(3):W332–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tunca F, Giles Y, Salmaslioglu A, Poyanli A, Yilmazbayhan D, Terzioglu T, et al. The preoperative exclusion of thyroid carcinoma in multinodular goiter: dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging versus ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Surgery. 2007;142(6):992–1002; discussion e1–2.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Feine U, Lietzenmayer R, Hanke JP, Held J, Wohrle H, Muller-Schauenburg W. Fluorine-18-FDG and iodine-131-iodide uptake in thyroid cancer. J Nucl Med. 1996;37(9):1468–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oh JR, Byun BH, Hong SP, Chong A, Kim J, Yoo SW, et al. Comparison of (1)(3)(1)I whole-body imaging, (1)(3)(1)I SPECT/CT, and (1)(8)F-FDG PET/CT in the detection of metastatic thyroid cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2011;38(8):1459–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nakajo M, Nakajo M, Jinguji M, Tani A, Kajiya Y, Tanabe H, et al. Diagnosis of metastases from postoperative differentiated thyroid cancer: comparison between FDG and FLT PET/CT studies. Radiology. 2013;267(3):891–901.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jeong HS, Baek CH, Son YI, Choi JY, Kim HJ, Ko YH, et al. Integrated 18F-FDG PET/CT for the initial evaluation of cervical node level of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma: comparison with ultrasound and contrast-enhanced CT. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006;65(3):402–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Robbins RJ, Srivastava S, Shaha A, Ghossein R, Larson SM, Fleisher M, et al. Factors influencing the basal and recombinant human thyrotropin-stimulated serum thyroglobulin in patients with metastatic thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(12):6010–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grünwald F, Kälicke T, Feine U, Lietzenmayer R, Scheidhauer K, Dietlein M, et al. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in thyroid cancer: results of a multicentre study. Eur J Nucl Med. 1999;26(12):1547–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schlüter B, Bohuslavizki KH, Beyer W, Plotkin M, Buchert R, Clausen M. Impact of FDG PET on patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who present with elevated thyroglobulin and negative 131I scan. J Nucl Med. 2001;42(1):71–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang W, Macapinlac H, Larson SM, Yeh SD, Akhurst T, Finn RD, et al. [18F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography localizes residual thyroid cancer in patients with negative diagnostic (131)I whole body scans and elevated serum thyroglobulin levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84(7):2291–302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mosci C, Iagaru A. PET/CT imaging of thyroid cancer. Clin Nucl Med. 2011;36(12):e180–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Robbins RJ, Wan Q, Grewal RK, Reibke R, Gonen M, Strauss HW, et al. Real-time prognosis for metastatic thyroid carcinoma based on 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography scanning. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(2):498–505.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Razfar A, Branstetter BF, Christopoulos A, Lebeau SO, Hodak SP, Heron DE, et al. Clinical usefulness of positron emission tomography-computed tomography in recurrent thyroid carcinoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010;136(2):120–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Leboulleux S, Schroeder PR, Busaidy NL, Auperin A, Corone C, Jacene HA, et al. Assessment of the incremental value of recombinant thyrotropin stimulation before 2-[18F]-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging to localize residual differentiated thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94(4):1310–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • James X. Wu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Masha Livhits
    • 1
  • Ali Sepahdari
    • 2
  • Michael W. Yeh
    • 1
  1. 1.Endocrine SurgeryUCLA David Geffen School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Radiological SciencesUCLA David Geffen School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations