Locally Advanced Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

  • Ming Yann Lim
  • Mark Zafereo
  • Elizabeth GrubbsEmail author


Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) comprises the majority (>90 %) of thyroid cancers [1], with 10–15 % presenting as locally advanced [2, 3]. Locally advanced thyroid cancers are those that extend beyond the thyroid capsule to invade surrounding structures, including muscles, recurrent laryngeal nerve(s), trachea, larynx, esophagus, and major blood vessels in the neck and chest. McCaffrey et al. described 262 patients with locally advanced papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) treated over a 60-year period at the Mayo Clinic; sites of invasion included the muscle (53 %), trachea (37 %), recurrent laryngeal nerve (47 %), esophagus (21 %), larynx (12 %), and other sites (30 %) [4]. Su et al. recently published a contemporary review of 69 patients with WDTC invading the upper aerodigestive tract, reporting complete tumor excision with negative margins in 62 % of patients. The authors showed 85 % locoregional control, with 23 % of patients developing distant metastases, and 5-year overall survival 71 % [5].


Thyroid Cancer Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve External Beam Radiation Therapy Cricoid Cartilage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ming Yann Lim
    • 1
  • Mark Zafereo
    • 2
  • Elizabeth Grubbs
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyTan Tock Seng HospitalSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Departments of Head and NeckUniversity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Surgical OncologyUniversity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

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