Surgical Intervention for Indeterminate Thyroid Nodules

  • Snehal G. Patel
  • Linwah YipEmail author


Thyroid nodules are common and have a ~5 % risk of malignancy. On fine-needle aspiration biopsy, nodules classified in one of the three indeterminate Bethesda categories including atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance, follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm, and suspicious for malignancy have varying rates of malignancy with predicted probabilities of cancer of 5–15 %, 15–30 %, and 60–75 %, respectively. The optimal management of the indeterminate nodule is dependent on cytology category and concern for malignancy and can be further modified by preoperative assessment of clinical, sonographic, and molecular risk factors. Either thyroid lobectomy or total thyroidectomy can provide definitive diagnosis.


Thyroid nodules Indeterminate cytology Thyroid cancer Cancer risk factors Indeterminate nodule 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of Endocrine Surgery and Surgical OncologyUniversity of PittsburghPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.University of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

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