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Immune-Mediated Mechanisms of Proteinuria

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Abstract

The kidney is a common target of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and one of the most common manifestations of immunologic injury of the kidney is proteinuria. Many cellular and molecular components of the immune system can injure the glomerular capillary wall. Thus, appropriate immune responses to infections as well as maladaptive immune responses in patients with autoimmune diseases can cause glomerular injury and proteinuria. Consequently, immunosuppressive medications are effective for treating many forms of proteinuric renal disease. A large number of new biologic agents capable of blocking or amplifying particular components of the immune system are currently being developed. As our understanding of the pathogenesis of proteinuric kidney diseases improves, these new therapeutic agents will likely improve our ability to treat many of the kidney diseases associated with proteinuria.

Keywords

Proteinuria Podocyte Inflammation Immune Immunoglobulin Immune-complex Cytokine Complement Toll-like receptor 

Abbreviations

APC

Antigen presenting cells

AT1R

Angiotensin II Type I Receptor

C3G

C3 glomerulopathy

CNI

Calcineurin inhibitors

CTLA-4

Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte–Associated Antigen 4

FcR

Immunoglobulin receptor

FSGS

Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

GBM

Glomerular basement membrane

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

IC

Immune-complex

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MBL

Mannose binding lectin

MCD

Minimal change disease

MN

Membranous nephropathy

MPGN

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis

PLA2R1

M-type Phospholipase A2 Receptor 1

THSD7A

Thrombospondin Type-1 Domain-Containing 7A

TLR

Toll-like receptor

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Renal Diseases and HypertensionUniversity of Colorado DenverAuroraUSA

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