Evaluation and Epidemiology of Proteinuria



Proteinuria is a strong and independent predictor of increased risk of kidney disease progression and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Urinary excretion of protein >150 mg a day is considered to be a marker of kidney damage and to significantly increase the risk of progression to end stage renal disease. Epidemiological studies, however, suggest that excretion of as little as 10 mg/day of protein in the urine is associated with increased risk of kidney failure. There are several methods for measuring protein or albumin excretion in the urine including the spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPCR), the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), the urine dipstick and the 24 h urine collection. Of these, the 24 h urine collection is considered to be the gold standard. Proteinuria may be transient or persistent. While transient proteinuria is almost always benign, persistent proteinuria may be due to several different causes including primary glomerular diseases and systemic disorders that damage the kidneys.


Proteinuria Albuminuria Nephrotic syndrome Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio Kidney disease progression 



African-American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension


Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor


Acute kidney injury


Angiotensin receptor blocker


Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort


Estimated glomerular filtration rate


Endothelin receptor antagonists


End stage renal disease


Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis


Modification of Diet in Renal Disease


National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey


Renin angiotensin aldosterone system


Renin angiotensin system


Ramipril Efficacy in Nephropathy


Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio


Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Renal Diseases and HypertensionUniversity of Colorado DenverAuroraUSA

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