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Iran and Qatar have little in common in terms of geography, population, history, politics, and ideology. Nevertheless, they have been drawn together in search of common ground by the force of circumstances on one hand and the strategic and policy preferences of their leaders on the other hand. The result, Kamrava suggests, has been the emergence of a broadly friendly “no-dispute” approach by each state toward the other despite what have been at times very trying circumstances and vastly divergent policy preferences. This chapter analyzes these circumstances and preferences, paying particular attention to how their interplay has influenced and shaped each state’s diplomacy toward the other. The mere fact that Tehran and Doha share the world’s largest natural gas structure (called North Field in Qatar and South Pars in Iran) serves as a major area of mutual interest between the two Persian Gulf states. The full utilization of hydrocarbon resources requires a high level of cooperation between Tehran and Doha.