Advertisement

Are There Biochemical and Molecular Biological Factors to Distinguish the Rectal Cancer by the Colon Cancer?

  • Ulrich T. Hacker
  • Pierre Laurent-Puig
Chapter

Abstract

Empirically, different strategies have evolved for the treatment of locally advanced colon cancer (surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy) compared to locally advanced rectal cancer (neoadjuvant radio- or radiochemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision followed by adjuvant chemotherapy). These differences are mostly attributable to the anatomical situation which poses an increased risk of local recurrence in locally advanced rectal cancer compared to colon cancer. On the other hand, in the metastatic setting, the treatment strategies are very much the same for colon carcinomas and rectum carcinomas, and the clinical outcome is generally similar [8]. Based on differences that exist between the normal right and left colon with respect to embryonic origin (midgut vs. hindgut) and some histological features [7], the question was raised whether colon cancer can be distinguished from rectal cancer based on molecular and/or biochemical differences.

References

  1. 1.
    Balaguer F, Moreira L, Lozano JJ, Link A, Ramirez G, Shen Y, Cuatrecasas M, Arnold M, Meltzer SJ, Syngal S, Stoffel E, Jover R, Llor X, Castells A, Boland CR, Gironella M, Goel A (2011) Colorectal cancers with microsatellite instability display unique miRNA profiles. Clin Cancer Res 17:6239–6249CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boland CR, Goel A (2010) Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 138(6):2073–2087.e3CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cancer Genome Atlas N (2012) Comprehensive molecular characterization of human colon and rectal cancer. Nature 487(7407):330–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen Z, Liu Z, Li W, Qu K, Deng X, Varma MG, Fichera A, Pigazzi A, Garcia-Aguilar J (2011) Chromosomal copy number alterations are associated with tumor response to chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer 50(9):689–699CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Guinney J, Dienstmann R, Wang X, de Reynies A, Schlicker A, Soneson C, Marisa L, Roepman P, Nyamundanda G, Angelino P, Bot BM, Morris JS, Simon IM, Gerster S, Fessler E, De Sousa EMF, Missiaglia E, Ramay H, Barras D, Homicsko K, Maru D, Manyam GC, Broom B, Boige V, Perez-Villamil B, Laderas T, Salazar R, Gray JW, Hanahan D, Tabernero J, Bernards R, Friend SH, Laurent-Puig P, Medema JP, Sadanandam A, Wessels L, Delorenzi M, Kopetz S, Vermeulen L, Tejpar S (2015) The consensus molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer. Nat Med 21:1350–1356CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hinoue T, Weisenberger DJ, Lange CPE, Shen H, Byun H-M, Van Den Berg D, Malik S, Pan F, Noushmehr H, van Dijk CM, Tollenaar REM, Laird PW (2012) Genome-scale analysis of aberrant DNA methylation in colorectal cancer. Genome Res 22:271–282CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Iacopetta B (2002) Are there two sides to colorectal cancer? Int J Cancer 101:403–408CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee YC, Lee YL, Chuang JP, Lee JC (2013) Differences in survival between colon and rectal cancer from SEER data. PLoS One 8(11):e78709CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pino MS, Chung DC (2010) The chromosomal instability pathway in colon cancer. Gastroenterology 138(6):2059–2072CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sanz-Pamplona R, Cordero D, Berenguer A, Lejbkowicz F, Rennert H, Salazar R, Biondo S, Sanjuan X, Pujana MA, Rozek L, Giordano TJ, Ben-Izhak O, Cohen HI, Trougouboff P, Bejhar J, Sova Y, Rennert G, Gruber SB, Moreno V (2011) Gene expression differences between colon and rectum tumors. Clin Cancer Res 17(23):7303–7312CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Slattery ML, Curtin K, Wolff RK, Boucher KM, Sweeney C, Edwards S, Caan BJ, Samowitz W (2009) A comparison of colon and rectal somatic DNA alterations. Dis Colon Rectum 52:1304–1311CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Young J, Simms LA, Biden KG, Wynter C, Whitehall V, Karamatic R, George J, Goldblatt J, Walpole I, Robin S-A, Borten MM, Stitz R, Searle J, McKeone D, Fraser L, Purdie DR, Podger K, Price R, Buttenshaw R, Walsh MD, Barker M, Leggett BA, Jass JR (2001) Features of colorectal cancers with high-level microsatellite instability occurring in familial and sporadic settings. Am J Pathol 159(6):2107–2116CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University Medicine Leipzig, University Cancer Center Leipzig (UCCL)LeipzigGermany
  2. 2.Université Paris DescartesParisFrance

Personalised recommendations