Which Are the Key Tools for the Management of Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer?

Chapter

Abstract

Fortunately, locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) has become a rare disease, despite the increase of colon and rectal cancer incidence in many countries, which have successfully introduced a screening program. Apart from being relatively rare, LRRC is also a complex disease, which does not develop in a well-defined anatomical space. A surgical resection requires dissection beyond the regular mesorectal margins to achieve a radically resected specimen without involvement of the surgical margins [1]. Therefore, LRRC qualifies for treatment in specialized centers. Only in these centers, the knowledge and experience to deal with this utmost heterogeneous disease can be built thanks to a large caseload. These patients cannot be dealt with on an ad hoc basis [2].

References

  1. 1.
    Heriot AG, Byrne CM, Lee P et al (2008) Extended radical resection: the choice for locally recurrent rectal cancer. Dis Colon Rectum 51(3):284–291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Heriot AG, Tekkis PP, Darzi A, Mackay J (2006) Surgery for local recurrence of rectal cancer. Color Dis 8(9):733–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dresen RC, Kusters M, Daniels-Gooszen AW et al (2010) Absence of tumor invasion into pelvic structures in locally recurrent rectal cancer: prediction with preoperative MR imaging. Radiology 256(1):143–150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shihab OC, How P, West N et al (2011) Can a novel MRI staging system for low rectal cancer aid surgical planning? Dis Colon Rectum 54(10):1260–1264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Maas M, Rutten IJ, Nelemans PJ et al (2011) What is the most accurate whole-body imaging modality for assessment of local and distant recurrent disease in colorectal cancer? A meta-analysis: imaging for recurrent colorectal cancer. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 38(8):1560–1571CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Joye I, Deroose CM, Vandecaveye V, Haustermans K (2014) The role of diffusion-weighted MRI and (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the prediction of pathologic complete response after radiochemotherapy for rectal cancer: a systematic review. Radiother Oncol 113(2):158–165CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lambregts DM, Rao SX, Sassen S et al (2014) MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI volumetry for identification of complete tumor responders after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer: a bi-institutional validation study. Ann Surg 262(6):1034–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Patel UB, Taylor F, Blomqvist L et al (2011) Magnetic resonance imaging-detected tumor response for locally advanced rectal cancer predicts survival outcomes: MERCURY experience. J Clin Oncol 29(28):3753–3760CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maffione AM, Marzola MC, Capirci C, Colletti PM, Rubello D (2015) Value of (18)F-FDG PET for predicting response to neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 204(6):1261–1268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leccisotti L, Gambacorta MA, de Waure C et al (2015) The predictive value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for assessing pathological response and survival in locally advanced rectal cancer after neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 42(5):657–666CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Perez RO, Habr-Gama A, Sao Juliao GP et al (2014) Predicting complete response to neoadjuvant CRT for distal rectal cancer using sequential PET/CT imaging. Tech Coloproctol 18(8):699–708CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kong G, Jackson C, Koh DM et al (2008) The use of 18F-FDG PET/CT in colorectal liver metastases – comparison with CT and liver MRI. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 35(7):1323–1329CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Law WL, Beyond TME, Collaborative (2013) Consensus statement on the multidisciplinary management of patients with recurrent and primary rectal cancer beyond total mesorectal excision planes. Br J Surg 100(8):E1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beyond TME, Collaborative (2013) Consensus statement on the multidisciplinary management of patients with recurrent and primary rectal cancer beyond total mesorectal excision planes. Br J Surg 100(8):1009–1014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dresen RC, Gosens MJ, Martijn H et al (2008) Radical resection after IORT-containing multimodality treatment is the most important determinant for outcome in patients treated for locally recurrent rectal cancer. Ann Surg Oncol 15(7):1937–1947CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mohiuddin M, Marks G, Marks J (2002) Long-term results of reirradiation for patients with recurrent rectal carcinoma. Cancer 95(5):1144–1150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Valentini V, Morganti AG, Gambacorta MA et al (2006) Preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis: a multicentric phase II study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 64(4):1129–1139CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bosman SJ, Holman FA, Nieuwenhuijzen GA, Martijn H, Creemers GJ, Rutten HJ (2014) Feasibility of reirradiation in the treatment of locally recurrent rectal cancer. Br J Surg 101(10):1280–1289CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    van den Brink M, Stiggelbout AM, van den Hout WB et al (2004) Clinical nature and prognosis of locally recurrent rectal cancer after total mesorectal excision with or without preoperative radiotherapy. J Clin Oncol 22(19):3958–3964CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fawaz K, Smith MJ, Moises C, Smith AJ, Yee AJ (2014) Single-stage anterior high sacrectomy for locally recurrent rectal cancer. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 39(5):443–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dozois EJ, Privitera A, Holubar SD et al (2011) High sacrectomy for locally recurrent rectal cancer: can long-term survival be achieved? J Surg Oncol 103(2):105–109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kido A, Koyama F, Akahane M et al (2011) Extent and contraindications for sacral amputation in patients with recurrent rectal cancer: a systematic literature review. J Orthop Sci 16(3):286–290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Bosman SJ, Vermeer TA, Dudink RL, de Hingh IH, Nieuwenhuijzen GA, Rutten HJ (2014) Abdominosacral resection: long-term outcome in 86 patients with locally advanced or locally recurrent rectal cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol 40(6):699–705CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bhangu A, Brown G, Akmal M, Tekkis P (2012) Outcome of abdominosacral resection for locally advanced primary and recurrent rectal cancer. Br J Surg 99(10):1453–1461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ferenschild FT, Vermaas M, Verhoef C, Dwarkasing RS, Eggermont AM, de Wilt JH (2009) Abdominosacral resection for locally advanced and recurrent rectal cancer. Br J Surg 96(11):1341–1347CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Holman FA, Martijnse IS, Traa MJ et al (2013) Dynamic article: vaginal and perineal reconstruction using rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in surgery for locally advanced rectum carcinoma and locally recurrent rectum carcinoma. Dis Colon Rectum 56(2):175–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Biggs P, Willett CG, Rutten HJT, Ciocca M, Gunderson LL, Calvo FA (2011) Intraoperative electron beam irradiation: physics and techniques. In: Gunderson LL, Willett CG, Calvo FA, Harrison LB (eds) Intraoperative irradiation: techniques and results, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 51–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Furhang EE, Sillanpaa JK, Hu KS, Harisson LB (2011) HDR-IORT: physics and techniques. In: Gunderson LL, Willett CG, Calvo FA, Harrison LB (eds) Intraoperative irradiation: techniques and results, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 73–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Okunieff P, Sundararaman S, Metcalfe S, Chen Y (2011) Biology of large dose per fraction irradiation. In: Gunderson LL, Willett CG, Calvo FA, Harrison LB (eds) Intraoperative irradiation: techniques and results, 2nd edn. Springer, New York, pp 27–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sebag-Montefiore D, Stephens RJ, Steele R et al (2009) Preoperative radiotherapy versus selective postoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with rectal cancer (MRC CR07 and NCIC-CTG C016): a multicentre, randomised trial. Lancet 373(9666):811–820CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kapiteijn E, Marijnen CA, Nagtegaal ID et al (2001) Preoperative radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision for resectable rectal cancer. N Engl J Med 345(9):638–646CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Alberda WJ, Verhoef C, Nuyttens JJ et al (2014) Intraoperative radiation therapy reduces local recurrence rates in patients with microscopically involved circumferential resection margins after resection of locally advanced rectal cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 88(5):1032–1040CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hyngstrom JR, Tzeng CW, Beddar S et al (2014) Intraoperative radiation therapy for locally advanced primary and recurrent colorectal cancer: ten-year institutional experience. J Surg Oncol 109(7):652–658CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mirnezami R, Chang GJ, Das P et al (2013) Intraoperative radiotherapy in colorectal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of techniques, long-term outcomes, and complications. Surg Oncol 22(1):22–35CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chau I, Brown G, Cunningham D et al (2006) Neoadjuvant capecitabine and oxaliplatin followed by synchronous chemoradiation and total mesorectal excision in magnetic resonance imaging-defined poor-risk rectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 24(4):668–674CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Alberda WJ, Haberkorn BC, Morshuis WG et al (2015) Response to chemotherapy in patients with recurrent rectal cancer in previously irradiated area. Int J Color Dis 30(8):1075–1080CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Catharina Hospital Eindhoven, Department of SurgeryEindhovenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Grow: School of Oncology and Developmental BiologyUniversity of MaastrichtEindhovenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations