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Ankle

  • Aaron Jay YangEmail author
  • Nitin B. Jain
Chapter

Abstract

Complete examination of the ankle should also include the foot and knee. Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common sports injuries encountered and the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) is the most common ligament injured. Ankle inversion injuries are much more common than eversion injuries due to weakness of the lateral ligaments compared to the medial deltoid ligaments. Ankle sprains can be graded based on the presence or extent of a ligament tear. Grade 1 includes a stretch or partial ATFL tear, Grade 2 includes a complete ATFL tear with stretch or partial tear of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL), and Grade 3 includes complete tears of the ATFL and CFL. Appropriate physical examination and knowledge of special tests can help diagnose and allow proper grading of ankle injuries. Although ankle sprains are mostly thought of as a benign injury, inadequate healing time and rehabilitation can lead to prolonged symptoms and can mask other injuries around the ankle joint such as fractures and tendinopathies.

Keywords

Anterior talofibular ligament Calcaneofibular ligament Achilles tendon Anterior draw test Talar tilt test Syndesmosis squeeze test Kleiger’s test Thompson’s test 

Suggested Reading

  1. Brukner P, Khan K. Clinical sports medicine. New York: McGraw Hill; 2006. p. 612–45.Google Scholar
  2. Magee DJ. Orthopedic physical assessment. Musculoskeletal physical examination: an evidence-based approach. San Francisco, CA: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013. p. 844–937.Google Scholar
  3. Malanga GA, Nadler S, editors. Musculoskeletal physical examination: an evidence-based approach. San Francisco, CA: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2006. p. 315–43.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA

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