• Aaron Jay YangEmail author
  • Nitin B. Jain


The abdominal examination in patients with chronic pain may often prove to be difficult. Pain can be referred from another organ system such as the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, as well as the gynecologic tracts in addition to presenting with visceral, somatic, or neuropathic pain. While the etiology of abdominal pain can be overwhelming, a careful history and systematic physical examination may aid in narrowing down the diagnosis. Red flags that should raise particular concern include fever, weight loss or anorexia, jaundice, edema, blood in urine or stool, abdominal mass, or pain that awakens the patient at night.


Nerve entrapment Anterior abdominal cutaneous nerves Carnett’s test Iliolinguinal nerve Iliohypogastric nerve Genitofemoral nerve Border nerves 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationVanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA

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