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Mycoremediation of Organic Pollutants: Principles, Opportunities, and Pitfalls

  • Stefano Covino
  • Tatiana Stella
  • Tomáš CajthamlEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Fungal Biology book series (FUNGBIO)

Abstract

The possibility of using fungi and fungal enzymes in the remediation of persistent organopullutants is a subject of keen interest to both microbiologists and scientists working in the auspices of the environmental sciences. This chapter reviews the proven ability of several saprotrophic fungi with distinct physiological and biochemical features to degrade and mineralize a wide range of organic and xenobiotic pollutants, including oil-derived products, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans, pesticides, herbicides, nitroaromatic explosives and pharmaceuticals. Finally, insights into this complex subject are presented, based on current information from pilot- and field-scale trials, as to why fungi should be considered as suitable candidates to design effective bioremediation technologies for persistent organic pollutants and other emerging organic micropollutants.

Keywords

Fungi Biodegradation pathways Cytochrome P450 monooxygenase Ligninolytic enzymes Mycoremediation Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon Chlorinated aromatic pollutants Micropollutants 

Abbreviations

LEs

Ligninolytic enzymes

LiP

Lignin peroxidase

MnP

Manganese-dependent peroxidase

VP

Versatile peroxidases

DyP

Dye-degrading peroxidases

Lac

Laccase

Tyr

Tyrosinase

UPO

Unspecific peroxigenases

CYP450

Cytochrome P450

CDH

Cellobiose dehydrogenase

SRFs

Soft rot fungi

BRFs

Brown rot fungi

WRFs

White rot fungi

LDFs

Litter-decomposing fungi

PCBs

Polychlorobiphenyls

PCDDs

Polychlorinated dioxins

DDT

1,1-bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane

BaP

Benzo[a]pyrene

POPs

Persistent organopollutants

PAHs

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

LFs

Ligninolytic fungi

NLFs

Non-ligninolytic fungi

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

CBAs

Chlorobenzoic acids

EDs

Endocrine disruptors

ECMs

Ectomycorrhizal fungal species

NADPH

Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate

PCDFs

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans

diCDD

Dichlorodibenzo-dioxin

OCDD

Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

MPs

Micropollutants

PPCP

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products

NPs

Nonylphenols

BPA

Bisphenol A

DEHP

Diethylhexyl phthalate

EE2

17α-ethinylestradiol

WWTP

Wastewater treatment plant

HBT

Hydroxybenzotriazole

NSAID

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

IBU

Ibuprofen

CA

Clofibric acid

CBZ

Carbamazepine

DBQ

Dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone

CLEAs

Cross-linked enzyme aggregates

TNT

Trinitrotoluene

TPH

Total petroleum hydrocarbons

qPCR

Quantitative PCR

PCP

Pentachlorophenol

SMC

Spent Mushroom Compost

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Grant No. 15-02328S of the Czech Science Foundation.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefano Covino
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tatiana Stella
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tomáš Cajthaml
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute for Environmental Studies, Faculty of ScienceCharles University in PraguePrague 2Czech Republic
  2. 2.Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic V.V.I.Prague 4Czech Republic

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