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Advances in Understanding the Generation and Specification of Unique Neuronal Sub-types from Drosophila Neuropeptidergic Neurons

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Abstract

The central nervous system (CNS) contains a daunting diversity of neuronal cell types. One of the major challenges of developmental neurobiology is to understand the regulatory mechanisms underlying this vast complexity. Studies in the Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila) model system has contributed greatly to our understanding of neuronal cell sub-type specification, and the majority of mechanisms and genes identified in this system has proved to be of great value, and often more or less directly transferable to studies of mammalian neuro-development. In Drosophila, studies of the developmental generation of numerous different neuropeptide neurons have been highly informative, since these neurons are generated in a highly restricted and reproducible manner. In addition, neuropeptides are expressed at high levels and their regulatory regions have proven comparatively condensed, facilitating the generation of a multitude of antibodies and transgenic markers. Here, we first provide a general background to Drosophila CNS development. Then, we focus in more detail on various well studied neuropeptide neurons identified in this system, and describe what has been learned regarding the generation and differentiation of these highly unique neuronal sub-types. We intend this review to provide an overview of the variety of mechanisms that operate throughout the developmental period to generate highly unique neuronal sub-types. Finally, we conclude with some general remarks and perspectives regarding neuronal sub-type specification in general.

Keywords

Cell specification Central nervous system Gene regulation Combinatorial codes Terminal selector 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Swedish Research Council, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, Swedish Cancer Foundation, and Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences for funding to ST, and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada for funding to DWA. We would like to thank Lyubov Veverytsa for assistance in generating figures.

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical and Experimental MedicineLinkoping UniversityLinkopingSweden
  2. 2.Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, Life Sciences InstituteUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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