Cortico-Striatal, Cognitive-Motor Interactions Underlying Complex Movement Control Deficits

Chapter
Part of the Innovations in Cognitive Neuroscience book series (Innovations Cogn.Neuroscience)

Abstract

The cognitive control of complex movement relies on intricate interactions between the basal ganglia and distinct cortical regions. Cholinergic-driven attention is a particularly vital cognitive component for guiding complex movements which require the detection and integration of external cues indicating, for example, dynamic surfaces, as well as interoceptive cues used to monitor gait, posture, and step placement. Reduced attention and loss of cortical acetylcholine in Parkinson’s Disease (PD) patients are associated with a groupof levodopa-unresponsive movement impairments such as postural instability, motor control deficits, and a propensity for falls. We developed an animal model, including a behavioral test system (The Michigan Complex Motor Control Task, MCMCT), for the assessment of complex movement and fall propensity in rats. The MCMCT was designed to tax the ability to rapidly correct movement errors while traversing dynamic surfaces (rotating square rods). Our findings indicated that rats with loss of cortical acetylcholine and dopamine terminals in the dorsomedial “associative” striatum suffered from deficiencies of complex movement control, including a high propensity for falls. We hypothesized that secondary to striatal dysfunction, attentional resources can no longer be recruited to compensate for diminished striatal control of complex movement, thereby “unmasking” impaired striatal control of movement and yielding falls. In addition, dopamine lesions that extended into the dorsolateral (sensorimotor) striatum caused falls triggered by long and frequent freezing episodes, modeling freezing of gait-associated falls. Using these lesion models, we elucidate how attentional control deficits and/or reduced motor vigor and impaired motor sequencing from striatal dopamine loss contribute to fall propensity in order to provide a detailed understanding of the cognitive-motor operations that guide complex movement.

Keywords

Acetylcholine Dopamine Attentional control Parkinson’s disease Gait 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Supported by NINDS Grant P50NS091856 (Morris K. Udall Center for Excellence in Parkinson’s Disease Research).

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology and Neuroscience ProgramUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

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