Advertisement

Rules and Mechanics

  • Mark J. NelsonEmail author
  • Julian Togelius
  • Cameron Browne
  • Michael Cook
Chapter
Part of the Computational Synthesis and Creative Systems book series (CSACS)

Abstract

Rules are at the core of many games. So how about generating them? This chapter discusses various ways to encode and generate game rules, and occasionally game entities that are strongly tied to rules. The first part discusses ways of generating rules for board games, including Ludi, perhaps the most successful example of automatically generated game rules. The second part discusses some more tentative attempts to generate rules for video games, in particular 2D games with graphical logic. Most approaches to generating game rules have used search-based methods such as evolution, but there are also some solver-based approaches.

Keywords

Game Design Board Game Card Game Strategy Game Graphical Game 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Althöfer, I.: Computer-aided game inventing. Tech. rep., Friedrich-Schiller University, Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Browne, C.: Connection Games: Variations on a Theme. AK Peters (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Browne, C.: Automatic generation and evaluation of recombination games. Ph.D. thesis, Queensland University of Technology (2008)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Browne, C.: Evolutionary Game Design. Springer, Berlin (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Browne, C., Maire, F.: Evolutionary game design. IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games 2(1), 1–16 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Congdon, C., Bida, M., Ebner, M., Kendall, G., Levine, J., Lucas, S., Miikkulainen, R., Schaul, T., Thompson, T.: General video game playing. In: Dagstuhl Seminar on Artificial and Computational Intelligence in Games (2013)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cook, M., Colton, S.: Multi-faceted evolution of simple arcade games. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games, pp. 289–296 (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dickins, A.: A Guide to Fairy Chess, 3rd edn. Dover (1971)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dormans, J.: Simulating mechanics to study emergence in games. In: Proceedings of the 1st AIIDE Workshop on Artificial Intelligence in the Game Design Process, pp. 2–7 (2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ebner, M., Levine, J., Lucas, S.M., Schaul, T., Thompson, T., Togelius, J.: Towards a video game description language. Dagstuhl Follow-Ups 6 (2013)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Font, J.M., Mahlmann, T., Manrique, D., Togelius, J.: Towards the automatic generation of card games through grammar-guided genetic programming. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, pp. 360–363 (2013)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Genesereth, M., Love, N., Pell, B.: General game playing: Overview of the AAAI competition. AI magazine 26(2), 62 (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hom, V., Marks, J.: Automatic design of balanced board games. In: Proceedings of the 3rd Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference, pp. 25–30 (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Khaled, R., Nelson, M.J., Barr, P.: Design metaphors for procedural content generation in games. In: Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1509–1518 (2013)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Koster, R.: A Theory of Fun for Game Design. Paraglyph (2004)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mahlmann, T., Togelius, J., Yannakakis, G.N.: Towards procedural strategy game generation: Evolving complementary unit types. Applications of Evolutionary Computation pp. 93–102 (2011)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mahlmann, T., Togelius, J., Yannakakis, G.N.: Evolving card sets towards balancing Dominion. In: Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (2012)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Nelson, M.J., Mateas, M.: Towards automated game design. In: AI*IA 2007: Artificial Intelligence and Human-Oriented Computing, pp. 626–637. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4733, Springer (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nelson, M.J., Mateas, M.: Recombinable game mechanics for automated design support. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference, pp. 84–89 (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nelson, M.J., Smith, A.M., Mateas, M.: Computational support for play testing game sketches. In: Proceedings of 5th Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment Conference, pp. 167–172 (2009)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nicalis: (2010). VVVVVVGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nicklas Nygren: (2011). NightSkyGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nielsen, T.S., Barros, G.A.B., Togelius, J., Nelson, M.J.: General video game evaluation using relative algorithm performance profiles. In: Proceedings of the 18th Conference on Applications of Evolutionary Computation, pp. 369–380 (2015)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nielsen, T.S., Barros, G.A.B., Togelius, J., Nelson, M.J.: Towards generating arcade game rules with VGDL. In: Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games, pp. 185–192 (2015)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Orwant, J.: EGGG: Automated programming for game generation. IBM Systems Journal 39(3–4), 782–794 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pell, B.: METAGAME: A new challenge for games and learning. In: Heuristic Programming in Artificial Intelligence 3: The Third Computer Olympiad. Ellis Horwood (1992). Extended version available as University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory Technical Report UCAMCL-TR-276.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Pell, B.: METAGAME in symmetric, chess-like games. In: Heuristic Programming in Artificial Intelligence 3: The Third Computer Olympiad. Ellis Horwood (1992). Extended version available as University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory Technical Report UCAM-CL-TR-277.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Piaget, J.: Piaget’s theory. In: B. Inhelder, H.H. Chipman, C. Zwingmann (eds.) Piaget and His School: A Reader in Developmental Psychology, pp. 11–23. Springer (1976)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Poli, R., Langdon, W.B., McPhee, N.F.: A Field Guide to Genetic Programming (2008). http://www.gp-field-guide.org.uk
  30. 30.
    Schaul, T.: A video game description language for model-based or interactive learning. In: IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence in Games (CIG), pp. 193–200 (2013)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Smith, A.M., Mateas, M.: Variations Forever: Flexibly generating rulesets from a sculptable design space of mini-games. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games, pp. 273–280 (2010)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Smith, A.M., Mateas, M.: Computational caricatures: Probing the game design process with AI. In: Proceedings of the 1st AIIDE Workshop on Artificial Intelligence in the Game Design Process, pp. 19–24 (2011)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Togelius, J.: A procedural critique of deontological reasoning. In: Proceedings of DiGRA (2011)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Togelius, J., Nelson, M.J., Liapis, A.: Characteristics of generatable games. In: Proceedings of the Fifth Workshop on Procedural Content Generation in Games (2014)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Togelius, J., Schmidhuber, J.: An experiment in automatic game design. In: Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Computational Intelligence and Games, pp. 111–118 (2008)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Treanor, M., Mateas, M., Wardrip-Fruin, N.: Kaboom! is a many-splendored thing: An interpretation and design methodology for message-driven games using graphical logics. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the Foundations of Digital Games, pp. 224–231 (2010)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark J. Nelson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Julian Togelius
    • 2
  • Cameron Browne
    • 3
  • Michael Cook
    • 1
  1. 1.The MetaMakers InstituteFalmouth UniversityPenrynUK
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringNew York UniversityBrooklynUSA
  3. 3.Science and Engineering FacultyQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbane CityAustralia

Personalised recommendations