Grammars and L-systems with applications to vegetation and levels

  • Julian TogeliusEmail author
  • Noor Shaker
  • Joris Dormans
Part of the Computational Synthesis and Creative Systems book series (CSACS)


Grammars are fundamental structures in computer science that also have many applications in procedural content generation. This chapter starts by describing a classic type of grammar, the L-system, and its application to generating plants of various types. It then describes how rules and axioms for L-systems can be created through search-based methods. But grammars are not only useful for plants. Two longer examples discuss the generation of action-adventure levels through graph grammars, and the generation of Super Mario Bros. levels through grammatical evolution.


Production Rule Graph Grammar Digital Game Formal Grammar Grammatical Evolution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringNew York UniversityBrooklynUSA
  2. 2.Department of Architecture, Design and Media TechnologyAalborg University CopenhagenCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.AmsterdamThe Netherlands

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