Advertisement

Wholeness and Holiness: The Spiritual Dimension of Eudaimonics

  • Kenneth I. PargamentEmail author
  • Serena Wong
  • Julie J. Exline
Chapter
Part of the International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life book series (IHQL)

Abstract

In this chapter, we offer an understanding of optimal functioning as wholeness in an individual’s orienting system, which is comprised of values, beliefs, practices, emotions, and relationships that offer direction and stability in the search for significance. To begin unpacking the meaning of wholeness and its relationship to eudaimonia, we focus on five sets of elements that distinguish greater wholeness from greater brokenness: (a) purposive vs. aimless; (b) broad and deep vs. narrow and shallow; (c) flexible and enduring vs. rigid and unstable; (d) balanced, cohesive, and discerning vs. imbalanced, incohesive, and non-reflective; (e) benevolent and life-affirming vs. non-benevolent and life-limiting. Because wholeness is intimately tied to holiness, our discussion of these elements highlights dynamic contributions from spirituality and religion. In addition, we examine how people may achieve greater wholeness in their lives, emphasizing the vital role of spiritual struggles in this process. Finally, points of convergence and divergence among wholeness, optimal functioning, and eudaimonia are discussed, in addition to the utility of wholeness in distinguishing eudaimonic and hedonic approaches to well-being.

Keywords

Wholeness Well-being Eudaimonia Spirituality 

References

  1. Abu-Raiya, H., Pargament, K. I., Mahoney, A., & Trevino, K. (2011). On the links between perceptions of desecration and prejudice toward religious and social groups: A review of an emerging line of inquiry. Implicit Religion, 14(4), 455–482. doi: 10.1558/imre.v14i4.455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abu-Raiya, H., Pargament, K. I., Mahoney, A., & Trevino, K. (2008). When Muslims are perceived as a religious threat: Examining the connection between desecration, religious coping, and anti-Muslim attitudes. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 30(4), 311–325. doi: 10.1080/01973530802502234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aghababaei, N., & Błachnio, A. (2015). Well-being and the Dark Triad. Personality and Individual Differences, 86, 365–368. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Allen, G. E., & Wang, K. T. (2014). Examining religious commitment, perfectionism, scrupulosity, and well-being among LDS individuals. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6(3), 257. doi: 10.1037/a0035197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anesaki, M. (1916). Nichiren: The Buddhist prophet. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balboni, T. A., Balboni, M., Paulk, M. E., Phelps, A., Wright, A., Peteet, J., et al. (2011). Support of cancer patients’ spiritual needs and associations with medical care costs at the end of life. Cancer, 117(23), 5383–5391. doi: 10.1002/cncr.26221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balboni, T. A., Vanderwerker, L. C., Block, S. D., Paulk, M. E., Lathan, C. S., Peteet, J. R., et al. (2007). Religiousness and spiritual support among advanced cancer patients and associations with end-of-life treatment preferences and quality of life. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 25(5), 555–560. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2006.07.9046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Besser-Jones, L. (2014). Eudaimonic ethics: The philosophy and psychology of living well (Vol. 27). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Bhikkhu, S. (1985). The giving rise of the ten kinds of mind of the Bodhisattva/the discourse on the ten wholesome ways of action. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia: Syarikat Dharma.Google Scholar
  10. Brandt, M. J., & Reyna, C. (2014). To love or hate thy neighbor: The role of authoritarianism and traditionalism in explaining the link between fundamentalism and racial prejudice. Political Psychology, 35(2), 207–223. doi: 10.1111/pops.12077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dalai, L., & Cutler, H. C. (1998). The art of happiness: A handbook for living. New York: Riverhead Books.Google Scholar
  12. de Castella, R., & Simmonds, J. G. (2013). “There’s a deeper level of meaning as to what suffering’s all about”: Experiences of religious and spiritual growth following trauma. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 16(5), 536–556. doi: 10.1080/13674676.2012.702738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Desai, K. M., & Pargament, K. I. (2015). Predictors of growth and decline following spiritual struggle. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 25, 42–56. doi: 10.1080/10508619.2013.847697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Doehring, C. (2013). An applied integrative approach to exploring how religion and spirituality contribute to or counteract prejudice and discrimination. In K. I. Pargament, A. Mahoney, & E. P. Shafranske (Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality (Vol 2): An applied psychology of religion and spirituality (pp. 389–403). Washington, DC: APA Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Du, S., Dong, J., Zhang, H., Jin, S., Xu, G., Liu, Z., et al. (2015). Taichi exercise for self-rated sleep quality in older people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 52(1), 368–379. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.05.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dunn, E. W., Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2011). If money doesn’t make you happy, then you probably aren’t spending it right. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21(2), 115–125. doi: 10.1016/j.jcps.2011.02.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Emmons, R. A. (1999). The psychology of ultimate concerns: Motivation and spirituality in personality. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  18. Emmons, R. A. (2005). Striving for the sacred: Personal goals, life meaning, and religion. Journal of Social Issues, 61(4), 731–745. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00429.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Exline, J. J. (2013). Religious and spiritual struggles. In K. I. Pargament, A. Mahoney, & E. P. Shafranske (Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality (Vol 1): Context, theory, and research (pp. 459–475). Washington, DC: APA Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Exline, J. J., Baumeister, R. F., Bushman, B. J., Campbell, W. K., & Finkel, E. J. (2004). Too proud to let go: Narcissistic entitlement as a barrier to forgiveness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87(6), 894. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.87.6.894.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Exline, J. J., Grubbs, J. B., & Homolka, S. J. (2015). Seeing God as cruel or distant: Links with divine struggles involving anger, doubt, and fear of God’s disapproval. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 25(1), 29–41. doi: 10.1080/10508619.2013.857255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Exline, J. J., Pargament, K. I., Grubbs, J. B., & Yali, A. M. (2014). The religious and spiritual struggles scale: Development and initial validation. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6(3), 208. doi: 10.1037/a0036465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Exline, J. J., Park, C. L., Smyth, J. M., & Carey, M. P. (2011). Anger toward God: Social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 129–148. doi: 10.1037/a0021716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Exline, J. J., Yali, A. M., & Sanderson, W. C. (2000). Guilt, discord, and alienation: The role of religious strain in depression and suicidality. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56(12), 1481–1496. doi: 10.1002/1097-4679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Faigin, C. A., Pargament, K. I., & Abu-Raiya, H. (2014). Spiritual struggles as a possible risk factor for addictive behaviors: An initial empirical investigation. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 24, 201–214. doi: 10.1080/10508619.2013.837661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fowler, J. W. (1981). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. San Francisco: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  27. Frank, A. (2010). The diary of a young girl. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  28. Frankel, E. (2005). Sacred therapy: Jewish spiritual teachings on emotional healing and inner wholensss. Boston: Shambhala.Google Scholar
  29. Gall, T. L., Charbonneau, C., & Florack, P. (2011). The relationship between religious/spiritual factors and perceived growth following a diagnosis of breast cancer. Psychology and Health, 26, 287–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Greenberg, D., & Huppert, J. D. (2010). Scrupulosity: A unique subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Current Psychiatry Reports, 12, 282–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gu, J., Strauss, C., Bond, R., & Cavanagh, K. (2015). How do mindfulness-based cognitive Therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction improve mental health and wellbeing? A systematic review and meta-analysis of mediation studies. Clinical Psychology Review, 37, 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.01.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Haar, J. M., Russo, M., Suñe, A., & Ollier-Malaterre, A. (2014). Outcomes of work–life balance on job satisfaction, life satisfaction and mental health: A study across seven cultures. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(3), 361–373. doi: 10.1016/j.jvb.2014.08.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hall, T. W., & Fujikawa, A. M. (2013). God image and the sacred. In K. I. Pargament, A. Mahoney, & E. P. Shafranske (Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality (Vol 1): Context, theory, and research (pp. 277–292). Washington, DC: APA Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hall, D. L., Matz, D. C., & Wood, W. (2010). Why don’t we practice what we preach? A meta-analytic review of religious racism. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(1), 126–139. doi: 10.1177/1088868309352179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Harvey, A. (1991). Hidden journey: A spiritual awakening. New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  36. Hornbacher, M. (1999). Wasted: A memoir of anorexia and bulimia. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  37. Hunsberger, B., & Jackson, L. M. (2005). Religion, meaning, and prejudice. Journal of Social Issues, 61(4), 807–826. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-4560.2005.00433.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. James, W. (1902). The varieties of religious experience. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Jenkinson, C. E., Dickens, A. P., Jones, K., Thompson-Coon, J., Taylor, R. S., Rogers, M., … & Richards, S. H. (2013). Is volunteering a public health intervention? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the health and survival of volunteers. BMC Public Health, 13(1), 773. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-773.
  40. Johnson, P. (1955). The psychology of religion. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.Google Scholar
  41. Jonason, P. K., Baughman, H. M., Carter, G. L., & Parker, P. (2015). Dorian Gray without his portrait: Psychological, social, and physical health costs associated with the Dark Triad. Personality and Individual Differences, 78, 5–13. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.01.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kim, S., Thibodeau, R., & Jorgensen, R. S. (2011). Shame, guilt, and depressive symptoms: a meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 137(1), 68. doi: 10.1037/a0021466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kitchener, K. S., & Brenner, H. G. (1990). Wisdom and reflective judgment: Knowing in the face of uncertainty. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Wisdom: Its nature, origins, and development (pp. 212–229). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Krause, N. (2003). Religious meaning and subjective well-being in late life. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 58(3), S160–S170. doi: 10.1093/geronb/58.3.S160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Krause, N., Emmons, R. A., & Ironson, G. (2015). Benevolent images of God, gratitude, and physical health status. Journal of Religion and Health, 1–17. doi: 10.1007/s10943-015-0063-0
  46. Kumar, S., Calvo, R., Avendano, M., Sivaramakrishnan, K., & Berkman, L. F. (2012). Social support, volunteering and health around the world: Cross-national evidence from 139 countries. Social Science & Medicine, 74(5), 696–706. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.11.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Laythe, B., Finkel, D. G., Bringle, R. G., & Kirkpatrick, L. A. (2002). Religious fundamentalism as a predictor of prejudice: A two‐component model. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 41(4), 623–635. doi: 10.1111/1468-5906.00142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lunau, T., Bambra, C., Eikemo, T. A., van der Wel, K. A., & Dragano, N. (2014). A balancing act? Work–life balance, health and well-being in European welfare states. The European Journal of Public Health, 24(3), 422–427. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cku010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lyons, M. T., & Hughes, S. (2015). Malicious mouths? The Dark Triad and motivations for gossip. Personality and Individual Differences, 78, 1–4. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.01.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Magyar-Russell, G., Pargament, K. I., Trevino, K. M., & Sherman, J. E. (2013). Religious and spiritual appraisals and coping strategies among patients in medical rehabilitation. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 24, 92–135.Google Scholar
  51. Mahoney, A., Pargament, K. I., Cole, B., Jewell, T., Magyar, G. M., Tarakeshwar, N., et al. (2005). A higher purpose: The sanctification of strivings in a community sample. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 15(3), 239–262. doi: 10.1207/s15327582ijpr1503_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Martos, T., Kézdy, A., & Horváth-Szabó, K. (2011). Religious motivations for everyday goals: Their religious context and potential consequences. Motivation and Emotion, 35(1), 75–88. doi: 10.1007/s11031-010-9198-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mayhew, M. J. (2014). Interfaith effectiveness [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from the U.S. Department of Education Center for Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships site: http://www.ed.gov/edblogs/fbnp/files/2013/07/Mayhew-Presentation.pdf
  54. McIntosh, D. N., Inglehart, M. R., & Pacini, R. (1990). Flexible and central religious belief systems and adjustment to college. Paper presented at the meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL.Google Scholar
  55. Ménard, J., & Brunet, L. (2011). Authenticity and well-being in the workplace: A mediation model. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26(4), 331–346. doi: 10.1108/02683941111124854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Murray, K., & Ciarrocchi, J. W. (2007). The dark side of religion, spirituality, and the moral emotions: Shame, guilt, and negative religiosity as markers for life dissatisfaction. Journal of Pastoral Counseling, 42, 22–41. doi:33363020.Google Scholar
  57. Neff, K. D. (2009). Self-compassion. In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 561–573). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  58. New World Encyclopedia. (2008). Holy. In New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Holy
  59. Oxnam, R. (2005). A fractured mind: My life with multiple personality disorder. New York: Hyperion.Google Scholar
  60. Palmer, P. J. (2004). A hidden wholeness: The journey toward an undivided life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  61. Pargament, K. I. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  62. Pargament, K. I. (2011). Spiritually integrated psychotherapy: Understanding and addressing the sacred. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  63. Pargament, K. I. (2013). Searching for the sacred: Toward a nonreductionistic theory of spirituality. In K. I. Pargament, J. J. Exline, & J. W. Jones (Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality (pp. 257–273). Washington, DC: APA Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pargament, K. I., Desai, K. M., & McConnell, K. M. (2006). Spirituality: A pathway to posttraumatic growth or decline? In L. G. Calhoun & R. G. Tedeschi (Eds.), Handbook of posttraumatic growth: Research and practice (pp. 121–137). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  65. Pargament, K. I., Koenig, H. G., Tarakeshwar, N., & Hahn, J. (2001). Religious struggle as a predictor of mortality among medically ill elderly patients: A 2-year longitudinal study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 161, 1881–1885. doi: 10.1001/archinte.161.15.1881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pargament, K. I., & Mahoney, A. (2005). Sacred matters: Sanctification as a vital topic for the psychology of religion. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 15(3), 179–198. doi: 10.1207/s15327582ijpr1503_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Pargament, K. I., Murray-Swank, N., Magyar, G., & Ano, G. (2005). Spiritual struggle: A phenomenon of interest to psychology and religion. In W. R. Miller & H. Delaney (Eds.), Judeo-Christian perspectives on psychology: Human nature, motivation, and change (pp. 245–268). Washington, DC: APA Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pargament, K. I., Trevino, K., Mahoney, A., & Silberman, I. (2007). They killed our Lord: The perception of Jews as desecrators of Christianity as a predictor of anti-Semitism. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 46(2), 143–158. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5906.2007.00347.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Patel, E. (2012). Sacred ground: Pluralism, prejudice, and the promise of America. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  70. Patel, E., & Meyer, C. (2011). The civic relevance for interfaith cooperation for colleges and universities. Journal of College and Character, 12(1), 1764. doi: 10.2202/1940-1639.Google Scholar
  71. Pepping, C. A., O’Donovan, A., Zimmer‐Gembeck, M. J., & Hanisch, M. (2014). Is emotion regulation the process underlying the relationship between low mindfulness and psychosocial distress? Australian Journal of Psychology, 66(2), 130–138. doi: 10.1111/ajpy.12050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Phillips, J. B. (1997). Your God is too small. New York: Touchstone Books.Google Scholar
  74. Pirutinsky, S., Rosmarin, D. H., Pargament, K. I., & Midlarsky, E. (2011). Does negative religious coping accompany, precede, or follow depression among Orthodox Jews? Journal of Affective Disorders, 132, 401–405. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.03.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ruedy, N. E., & Schweitzer, M. E. (2010). In the moment: The effect of mindfulness on ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 95(1), 73–87. doi: 10.1007/s10551-011-0796-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Ryan, R. M., LaGuardia, J. G., & Rawsthorne, L. J. (2005). Self-complexity and the authenticity of self-aspects: Effects on well being and resilience to stressful events. North American Journal of Psychology, 7(3), 431–448. Retrieved from http://www.selfdeterminationtheory.org/SDT/documents/2005_RyanLaGuardiaRawsthorne_NAJP.pdf
  77. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shariff, A. F., & Norenzayan, A. (2007). God is watching you priming God concepts increases prosocial behavior in an anonymous economic game. Psychological Science, 18(9), 803–809. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.01983.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Shariff, A. F., Willard, A. K., Andersen, T., & Norenzayan, A. (2015). Religious priming: A meta-analysis with a focus on prosociality. Personality and Social Psychology Review. doi: 10.1166/1088868314568811.
  80. Smith, H. (1958). The world’s religions. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  81. Sternberg, R. J. (2004). What is wisdom and how can we develop it? The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 591(1), 164–174. doi: 10.1177/0002716203260097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (2004). Posttraumatic growth: Conceptual foundations and empirical evidence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(1), 1–18. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/20447194
  83. Tillich, P. (1957). Dynamics of faith. New York: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  84. Todd, N. R., Houston, J. D., & Odahl-Ruan, C. A. (2014). Preliminary validation of the Sanctification of Social Justice Scale. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 6(3), 245. doi: 10.1037/a0036348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Todd, N. R., McConnell, E. A., & Suffrin, R. L. (2014). The role of attitudes toward white privilege and religious beliefs in predicting social justice interest and commitment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 53(1–2), 109–121. doi: 10.1007/s10464-014-9630-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Topalli, V., Brezina, T., & Bernhardt, M. (2012). With God on my side: The paradoxical relationship between religious belief and criminality among hardcore street offenders. Theoretical Criminology, 17(1), 49–69. doi: 10.1177/1362480612463114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Trevino, K. M., Archambault, E., Schuster, J., Richardson, P., & Moye, J. (2012). Religious coping and psychological distress in military veteran cancer survivors. Journal of Religion and Health, 51, 87–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Trevino, K., Pargament, K. I., Cotton, S., Leonard, A. C., Hahn, J., Caprini-Faigin, C. A., et al. (2010). Religious coping and physiological, psychological, social and spiritual outcomes in patients with HIV/AIDS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal findings. AIDS and Behavior, 14, 379–389. doi: 10.1007/s10461-007-9332-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tzu, L. (2012). Lao-tzu’s Taoteching: With selected commentaries from the past 2,000 years. Port Townsend, WA: Copper Canyon Press.Google Scholar
  90. Vittersø, J. (2013). Functional well-being: Happiness as feelings, evaluations and functioning. In S. A. David, I. Boniwell, & A. Conley Ayers (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of happiness (pp. 227–244). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Wallace, B. A., & Shapiro, S. L. (2006). Mental balance and well-being: Building bridges between Buddhism and Western psychology. American Psychologist, 61(7), 690. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.61.7.690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wang, C., Bannuru, R., Ramel, J., Kupelnick, B., Scott, T., & Schmid, C. H. (2010). Tai Chi on psychological well-being: Systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 10(1), 23. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-10-23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (Eudaimonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64, 678–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Watson, P. J., Hood, R. W., Morris, R. J., & Hall, J. R. (1986). The relationship between religiosity and narcissism. Counseling and Values, 31(2), 179–184. doi: 10.1002/j.2161-007X.1986.tb00490.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wayne, P. M., Walsh, J. N., Taylor‐Piliae, R. E., Wells, R. E., Papp, K. V., Donovan, N. J., et al. (2014). Effect of Tai Chi on cognitive performance in older adults: Systematic review and meta‐Analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 62(1), 25–39. doi: 10.1111/jgs.12611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Worthington, E. L., Jr., & Langberg, D. (2012). Religious considerations and self-forgiveness in treating complex trauma and moral injury in present and former soldiers. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 40(4), 274. doi: 84442312.Google Scholar
  97. Zahn, R., Lythe, K. E., Gethin, J. A., Green, S., Deakin, J. F. W., Young, A. H., et al. (2015). The role of self-blame and worthlessness in the psychopathology of major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 186, 337–341. doi: 10.1037/a0021466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Zika, S., & Chamberlain, K. (1992). On the relation between meaning in life and psychological well‐being. British Journal of Psychology, 83(1), 133–145. doi: 10.1111/j.2044-8295.1992.tb02429.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth I. Pargament
    • 1
    Email author
  • Serena Wong
    • 1
  • Julie J. Exline
    • 2
  1. 1.Bowling Green State UniversityBowling GreenUSA
  2. 2.Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandUSA

Personalised recommendations