Genes, Environments and Core Features of Eudaimonic Wellbeing

  • Espen RøysambEmail author
  • Ragnhild Bang Nes
Part of the International Handbooks of Quality-of-Life book series (IHQL)


Human wellbeing is influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. During the last two decades, an increasing number of genetically informative studies have documented substantial genetic influences for various types of wellbeing. Recent meta-analyses estimate the weighted average heritability of wellbeing to be in the range of 32–40 %. Importantly, these meta-studies also provide strong evidence of the causal role of environmental factors. Most twin- and family-studies of wellbeing have focused on subjective wellbeing in general and life satisfaction in particular and until recently few have examined the role of genetic factors in eudaimonic wellbeing. In addition to estimating the magnitude of the genetic and environmental effects, researchers have lately examined the extent to which different wellbeing phenomena share the same underlying genetic and environmental factors. The main aim of this chapter is to review some of these recent findings and to discuss implications for theory, practice and future research – including the potential of gene-environment matchmaking (i.e., positive interplay between environments and genes) for wellbeing interventions. Additionally, we address the current state of construct affairs. The field of eudaimonic wellbeing is in need of conceptual clarification, demarcation of borders and more stringent use of constructs. We question the notion of hedonia versus eudaimonia as the Big Two of wellbeing, and propose a model in which well-moving represents a core aspect of eudaimonic wellbeing.


Happiness Wellbeing Eudaimonia Hedonia Heritability Gene-environment matchmaking 


  1. APA. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Archontaki, D., Lewis, G. J., & Bates, T. C. (2013). Genetic influences on psychological well-being: A nationally representative twin study. Journal of Personality, 81(2), 221–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bartels, M. (2015). Genetics of wellbeing and its components satisfaction with life, happiness, and quality of life: A review and meta-analysis of heritability studies. Behavior Genetics, 45(2), 137–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartels, M., & Boomsma, D. I. (2009). Born to be happy? The etiology of subjective well-being. Behavior Genetics, 39(6), 605–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bartels, M., Okbay, A., Derringer, J., Baselmans, B., De Neve, J. E., Rietveld, C., … Koellinger, P. (2015). Genome-wide association meta-analyses for happiness, satisfaction with life and wellbeing; the sequel. Behavior Genetics, 45(6), 642–642.Google Scholar
  6. Beevers, C. G., Marti, C. N., Lee, H. J., Stote, D. L., Ferrell, R. E., Hariri, A. R., et al. (2011). Associations between serotonin transporter gene promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism and gaze bias for emotional information. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120(1), 187–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Belsky, J. (1997). Variation in susceptibility to environmental influence: An evolutionary argument. Psychological Inquiry, 8(3), 182–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Belsky, J., Newman, D. A., Widaman, K. F., Rodkin, P., Pluess, M., Fraley, R. C., … Roisman, G. I. (2015). Differential susceptibility to effects of maternal sensitivity? A study of candidate plasticity genes. Development and Psychopathology, 27(3), 725–746.Google Scholar
  9. Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009a). Beyond diathesis stress: Differential susceptibility to environmental influences. Psychological Bulletin, 135(6), 885–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Belsky, J., & Pluess, M. (2009b). The nature (and nurture?) of plasticity in early human development. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(4), 345–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bergeman, C., Plomin, R., Pedersen, N. L., & McClearn, G. (1991). Genetic mediation of the relationship between social support and psychological well-being. Psychology and Aging, 6(4), 640–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boardman, J. D., Blalock, C. L., & Button, T. M. M. (2008). Sex differences in the heritability of resilience. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 11(1), 12–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bolier, L., Haverman, M., Westerhof, G. J., Riper, H., Smit, F., & Bohlmeijer, E. (2013). Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies. BMC Public Health, 13, 119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boomsma, D., Busjahn, A., & Peltonen, L. (2002). Classical twin studies and beyond. Nature Reviews Genetics, 3(11), 872–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (2004). Genetic influence on human psychological traits: A survey. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4), 148–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bradburn, N. M. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being. Oxford, UK: Aldine.Google Scholar
  17. Brannan, D., Biswas-Diener, R., Mohr, C. D., Mortazavi, S., & Stein, N. (2013). Friends and family: A cross-cultural investigation of social support and subjective well-being among college students. Journal of Positive Psychology, 8(1), 65–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown, N. J. L., MacDonald, D. A., Samanta, M. P., Friedman, H. L., & Coyne, J. C. (2014). A critical reanalysis of the relationship between genomics and well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(35), 12705–12709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burgdorf, J., & Panksepp, J. (2006). The neurobiology of positive emotions. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30(2), 173–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Canli, T. (2004). Functional brain mapping of extraversion and neuroticism: Learning from individual differences in emotion processing. Journal of Personality, 72(6), 1105–1132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Caprara, G. V., Fagnani, C., Alessandri, G., Steca, P., Gigantesco, A., Sforza, L. L. C., et al. (2009). Human optimal functioning: The genetics of positive orientation towards self, life, and the future. Behavior Genetics, 39(3), 277–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Caspi, A., Sugden, K., Moffitt, T. E., Taylor, A., Craig, I. W., Harrington, H., … Poulton, R. (2003). Influence of life stress on depression: Moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science, 301(5631), 386–389.Google Scholar
  23. Christakopoulou, S., Dawson, J., & Gari, A. (2001). The community well-being questionnaire: Theoretical context and initial assessment of its reliability and validity. Social Indicators Research, 56(3), 321–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cole, S. W., Levine, M. E., Arevalo, J. M., Ma, J., Weir, D. R., & Crimmins, E. M. (2015). Loneliness, eudaimonia, and the human conserved transcriptional response to adversity. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 62, 11–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). The contribution of flow to positive psychology. Science of Optimism and Hope, 2, 387–395.Google Scholar
  26. De Neve, J.-E., Christakis, N. A., Fowler, J. H., & Frey, B. S. (2012). Genes, economics, and happiness. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 5(4), 193–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Deaton, A., & Stone, A. A. (2014). Evaluative and hedonic wellbeing among those with and without children at home. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(4), 1328–1333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2009). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and life satisfaction Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd ed., pp. 187–194). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Disabato, D. J., Goodman, F. R., Kashdan, T. B., Short, J. L., & Jarden, A. (2015). Different types of well-being? A cross-cultural examination of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Psychological Assessment, 28, 471–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fave, A. D. (2013). Chapter: Past, present, and future of flow the Oxford handbook of happiness (pp. 60–72). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Fox, E., Ridgewell, A., & Ashwin, C. (2009). Looking on the bright side: Biased attention and the human serotonin transporter gene. Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 276(1663), 1747–1751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fox, E., Zougkou, K., Ridgewell, A., & Garner, K. (2011). The serotonin transporter gene alters sensitivity to attention bias modification: Evidence for a plasticity gene. Biological Psychiatry, 70(11), 1049–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Frankenburg, F. R. (2001). Perspectives on spiritual well-being and aging. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(8), 1348–1349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Franz, C. E., Panizzon, M. S., Eaves, L. J., Thompson, W., Lyons, M. J., Jacobson, K. C., … Kremen, W. S. (2012). Genetic and environmental multidimensionality of well- and ill-being in middle aged twin men. Behavior Genetics, 42(4), 579–591.Google Scholar
  37. Fredrickson, B. L., Grewen, K. M., Algoe, S. B., Firestine, A. M., Arevalo, J. M. G., Ma, J., & Cole, S. W. (2015). Psychological Well-Being and the Human Conserved Transcriptional Response to Adversity. PLoS One, 10(3), e0121839.Google Scholar
  38. Fredrickson, B. L., Grewen, K. M., Coffey, K. A., Algoe, S. B., Firestine, A. M., Arevalo, J. M. G., … Cole, S. W. (2013). A functional genomic perspective on human well-being. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(33), 13684–13689.Google Scholar
  39. Gastfriend, D. R., & McLellan, A. T. (1997). Treatment matching – theoretic basis and practical implications. Medical Clinics of North America, 81(4), 945.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gatt, J. M., Burton, K. L. O., Schofield, P. R., Bryant, R. A., & Williams, L. M. (2014). The heritability of mental health and wellbeing defined using COMPAS-W, a new composite measure of wellbeing. Psychiatry Research, 219(1), 204–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gomez, R., & Fisher, J. W. (2003). Domains of spiritual well-being and development and validation of the Spiritual Well-Being Questionnaire. Personality and Individual Differences, 35(8), 1975–1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gordon, E. (2007). Integrating genomics and neuromarkers for the era of brain-related personalized medicine. Personalized Medicine, 4(2), 201–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Haase, C. M., Beermann, U., Saslow, L. R., Shiota, M. N., Saturn, S. R., Lwi, S. J., … Levenson, R. W. (2015). Short alleles, bigger smiles? The effect of 5-HTTLPR on positive emotional expressions. Emotion, 15(4), 438–448.Google Scholar
  44. Huppert, F. A., & So, T. T. C. (2013). Flourishing across Europe: Application of a new conceptual framework for defining well-being. Social Indicators Research, 110(3), 837–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huta, V., & Waterman, A. S. (2014). Eudaimonia and its distinction from Hedonia: Developing a classification and terminology for understanding conceptual and operational definitions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(6), 1425–1456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Karg, K., Burmeister, M., Shedden, K., & Sen, S. (2011). The serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR), stress, and depression meta-analysis revisited evidence of genetic moderation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68(5), 444–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kendler, K. S., Aggen, S. H., Czajkowski, N., Røysamb, E., Tambs, K., Torgersen, S., … Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2008). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for DSM-IV personality disorders a multivariate twin study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(12), 1438–1446.Google Scholar
  48. Kendler, K. S., Aggen, S. H., Knudsen, G. P., Røysamb, E., Neale, M. C., & Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2011). The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for syndromal and subsyndromal common DSM-IV axis I and all axis II disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168(1), 29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Keyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61(2), 121–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Keyes, C. L. M. (2000). Subjective change and its consequences for emotional well-being. Motivation and Emotion, 24(2), 67–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Keyes, C. L. M. (2007). Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing – a complementary strategy for improving national mental health. American Psychologist, 62(2), 95–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Keyes, C. L. M. (2013). Promotion and protection of positive mental health: Towards complete mental health in human development. The Oxford handbook of happiness (pp. 915–925). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Keyes, C. L. M., & Annas, J. (2009). Feeling good and functioning well: Distinctive concepts in ancient philosophy and contemporary science. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4(3), 197–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Keyes, C. L. M., Kendler, K. S., Myers, J. M., & Martin, C. C. (2015). The genetic overlap and distinctiveness of flourishing and the big five personality traits. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(3), 655-668.Google Scholar
  55. Keyes, C. L. M., Myers, J. M., & Kendler, K. S. (2010). The structure of the genetic and environmental influences on mental well-being. American Journal of Public Health, 100(12), 2379–2384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Keyes, C. L. M., Shmotkin, D., & Ryff, C. D. (2002). Optimizing well-being: The empirical encounter of two traditions. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(6), 1007–1022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kubarych, T. S., Prom-Wormley, E. C., Franz, C. E., Panizzon, M. S., Dale, A. M., Fischl, B., … Kremen, W. S. (2012). A multivariate twin study of hippocampal volume, self-esteem and well-being in middle-aged men. Genes Brain and Behavior, 11(5), 539–544.Google Scholar
  58. Lau, A. L. D., Cummins, R. A., & McPherson, W. (2005). An investigation into the cross-cultural equivalence of the Personal Wellbeing Index. Social Indicators Research, 72(3), 403–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lesch, K. P., Bengel, D., Heils, A., Sabol, S. Z., Greenberg, B. D., Petri, S., … Murphy, D. L. (1996). Association of anxiety-related traits with a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene regulatory region. Science, 274(5292), 1527–1531.Google Scholar
  60. Lucas, R. E., & Diener, E. (2008a). Personality and subjective well-being. In O. P. John, R. W. Robins, & L. A. Pervin (Eds.), Handbook of personality: Theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 795–814). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  61. Lucas, R. E., & Diener, E. (2008b). Subjective well-being. In M. Lewis, J. M. Haviland-Jones, & L. F. Barrett (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (3rd ed., pp. 471–484). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  62. Luhmann, M., Hawkley, L. C., Eid, M., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2012). Time frames and the distinction between affective and cognitive well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 46(4), 431–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Lykken, D., & Tellegen, A. (1996). Happiness is a stochastic phenomenon. Psychological Science, 7(3), 186–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lyubomirsky, S., & Layous, K. (2013). How do simple positive activities increase well-being? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(1), 57–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (2004). A contemplated revision of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(3), 587–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. McGue, M. (2010). The end of behavioral genetics? Behavior Genetics, 40(3), 284–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Monroe, S. M., & Simons, A. D. (1991). Diathesis stress theories in the context of life stress research – implications for the depressive-disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 110(3), 406–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mosing, M. A., Pedersen, N. L., Cesarini, D., Johannesson, M., Magnusson, P. K., Nakamura, J., … Ullen, F. (2012). Genetic and environmental influences on the relationship between flow proneness, locus of control and behavioral inhibition. PLoS One, 7(11), e47958.Google Scholar
  69. Muffels, R., & Headey, B. (2013). Capabilities and choices: Do they make sen’se for understanding objective and subjective well-being? An empirical test of Sen’s capability framework on German and British panel data. Social Indicators Research, 110(3), 1159–1185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Munafo, M. R., Clark, T. G., Moore, L. R., Payne, E., Walton, R., & Flint, J. (2003). Genetic polymorphisms and personality in healthy adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Molecular Psychiatry, 8(5), 471–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Nes, R. B. (2010). Happiness in behaviour genetics: Findings and implications. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(3), 369–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nes, R. B., & Røysamb, E. (2015). The heritability of subjective well-being: Review and meta-analysis. In M. Pluess (Ed.), Genetics of psychological well-being (pp. 75–96). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Nes, R. B., Røysamb, E., Tambs, K., Harris, J., & Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2006). Subjective well-being: Genetic and environmental contributions to stability and change. Psychological Medicine, 36(7), 1033–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Novin, S., Tso, I. F., & Konrath, S. H. (2014). Self-related and other-related pathways to subjective well-being in Japan and the United States. Journal of Happiness Studies, 15(5), 995–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Oswald, A. J., & Wu, S. (2010). Objective confirmation of subjective measures of human well-being: Evidence from the USA. Science, 327(5965), 576–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (1993). Review of the satisfaction with life scale. Psychological Assessment, 5(2), 164–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2004). Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association/Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Plomin, R. (2013). Commentary: Missing heritability, polygenic scores, and gene-environment correlation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 1147–1149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Plomin, R., DeFries, J. C., Knopik, V. S., & Neiderhiser, J. M. (2013). Behavioral genetics (6th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.Google Scholar
  80. Pluess, M., & Belsky, J. (2013). Vantage sensitivity: Individual differences in response to positive experiences. Psychological Bulletin, 139(4), 901–916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Polderman, T. J. C., Benyamin, B., de Leeuw, C. A., Sullivan, P. F., van Bochoven, A., Visscher, P. M., et al. (2015). Meta-analysis of the heritability of human traits based on fifty years of twin studies. Nature Genetics, 47(7), 702.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Proctor, C., Tweed, R., & Morris, D. (2015). The naturally emerging structure of well-being among young adults: “Big Two” or other framework? Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(1), 257–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1(3), 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Rietveld, C. A., Cesarini, D., Benjamin, D. J., Koellinger, P. D., De Neve, J.-E., Tiemeier, H., … Bartels, M. (2013). Molecular genetics and subjective well-being. PNAS Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(24), 9692–9697.Google Scholar
  85. Robinson, M. D. (2000). The reactive and prospective functions of mood: Its role in linking daily experiences and cognitive well-being. Cognition & Emotion, 14(2), 145–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Røysamb, E., Harris, J. R., Magnus, P., Vitterso, J., & Tambs, K. (2002). Subjective well-being. Sex-specific effects of genetic and environmental factors. Personality and Individual Differences, 32(2), 211–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Røysamb, E., Kendler, K. S., Tambs, K., Orstavik, R. E., Neale, M. C., Aggen, S. H., … Reichborn-Kjennerud, T. (2011). The joint structure of DSM-IV axis I and axis II disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 120(1), 198–209.Google Scholar
  89. Røysamb, E., Nes, R. B., & Vitterso, J. (2014). Well-being: Heritable and changeable. In K. Sheldon & R. E. Lucas (Eds.), Stability of happiness. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  90. Røysamb, E., Tambs, K., Reichborn-Kjennerud, T., Neale, M. C., & Harris, J. R. (2003). Happiness and health: Environmental and genetic contributions to the relationship between subjective well-being, perceived health, and somatic illness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(6), 1136–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 141–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ryan, R. M., Huta, V., & Deci, E. L. (2008). Living well: A self-determination theory perspective on eudaimonia. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9(1), 139–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it – explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Ryff, C. D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (1995). The structure of psychological well-being revisited. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(4), 719–727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9(1), 13–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. 2002. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  97. Seligman, M. E. P. (2011). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  98. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist, 55(1), 5–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60(5), 410–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Shapiro, A., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2008). Marital status and social well-being: Are the married always better off? Social Indicators Research, 88(2), 329–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sheldon, K. M., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2007). Is it possible to become happier? (And if so, how?). Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 1(1), 129–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Simsek, O. F. (2009). Happiness revisited: Ontological well-being as a theory-based construct of subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(5), 505–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sirgy, M. J., Widgery, R. N., Lee, D. J., & Yu, G. B. (2010). Developing a measure of community well-being based on perceptions of impact in various life domains. Social Indicators Research, 96(2), 295–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Steger, M. F., Hicks, B. M., Kashdan, T. B., Krueger, R. F., & Bouchard, T. J., Jr. (2007). Genetic and environmental influences on the positive traits of the values in action classification, and biometric covariance with normal personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(3), 524–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Steger, M. F., Kashdan, T. B., & Oishi, S. (2008). Being good by doing good: Daily eudaimonic activity and well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 42(1), 22–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stein, M. B., Campbell-Sills, L., & Gelernter, J. (2009). Genetic variation in 5HTTLPR is associated with emotional resilience. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B-Neuropsychiatric Genetics, 150b(7), 900–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Steptoe, A., Deaton, A., & Stone, A. A. (2015). Subjective wellbeing, health, and ageing. Lancet, 385(9968), 640–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tomyn, A. J., Tyszkiewicz, M. D. F., & Cummins, R. A. (2013). The personal wellbeing index: Psychometric equivalence for adults and school children. Social Indicators Research, 110(3), 913–924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Vitterso, J. (2013). Functional well-being: Happiness as feelings, evaluations, and functioning. In S. A. David, I. Boniwell, & A. Conley Ayers (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of happiness (pp. 227–244). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  110. Vitterso, J., Soholt, Y., Hetland, A., Thoresen, I. A., & Roysamb, E. (2010). Was Hercules happy? Some answers from a functional model of human well-being. Social Indicators Research, 95(1), 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Waaktaar, T., & Torgersen, S. (2012). Genetic and environmental causes of variation in trait resilience in young people. Behavior Genetics, 42(3), 366–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wakefield, J. C. (1992). Disorder as harmful dysfunction – a conceptual critique of Dsm-Iii-Rs definition of mental disorder. Psychological Review, 99(2), 232–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Waterman, A. S. (2008). Reconsidering happiness: A eudaimonist’s perspective. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3(4), 234–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. WHO. (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  115. Widiger, T. A., & Samuel, D. B. (2005). Diagnostic categories or dimensions? A question for the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders – fifth edition. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(4), 494–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Young, K. C., Kashdan, T. B., & Macatee, R. (2015). Strength balance and implicit strength measurement: New considerations for research on strengths of character. Journal of Positive Psychology, 10(1), 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  2. 2.Norwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations