Skip to main content

Chemotherapy

  • 1288 Accesses

Abstract

Nearly all patients with metastatic prostate cancer (PC) become resistant to the initial approach with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), developing the state known as metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). For nearly a decade, chemotherapy with docetaxel has been the only established standard of care in this setting. In recent years, treatment of mCRPC has changed dramatically due to the improvement in the understanding of CRPC biology, which has revealed that during the progression to the castrate status, PC cells remain dependent on androgens and on the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. Multiple novel agents that have demonstrated to improve OS, symptom control, and QoL in mCRPC have been approved, including sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide, and radium-223. The optimal sequencing and combination of these treatments still need to be defined. However, chemotherapy with docetaxel and cabazitaxel remains an important therapeutic option for patients with mCRPC, with potential clinical effect on bone metastases.

Keywords

  • Overall Survival
  • Androgen Receptor
  • Median Overall Survival
  • Androgen Deprivation Therapy
  • Abiraterone Acetate

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-42327-2_11
  • Chapter length: 13 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-42327-2
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   149.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   149.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

References

  1. Attard G, Parker C, Eeles RA et al (2016) Prostate cancer. Lancet 387:70–82

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Ryan CJ, Small EJ (2003) Role of secondary hormonal therapy in the management of recurrent prostate cancer. Urology 62(Suppl 1):87–94

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Tannock IF (1985) Is there evidence that chemotherapy is of benefit to patients with carcinoma of the prostate? J Clin Oncol 3:1013–1021

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Tannock IF, Osoba D, Stockler MR et al (1996) Chemotherapy with mitoxantrone plus prednisone or prednisone alone for symptomatic hormone-resistant prostate cancer: a Canadian randomized trial with palliative endpoints. J Clin Oncol 14:1756–1764

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Tannock IF, de Wit R, Berry WR et al (2004) Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 351:1502–1512

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Petrylak DP, Tangen CM, Hussain MHA et al (2004) Docetaxel and estramustine compared with mitoxantrone and prednisone for advanced refractory prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 351:1513–1520

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Mostaghel EA, Page ST, Lin DW et al (2007) Intra-prostatic androgens and androgen-regulated gene expression persist after testosterone suppression: therapeutic implications for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Res 67:5033–5041

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Kantoff PW, Higano CS, Shore ND et al (2010) Sipuleucel-T immunotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 363:411–422

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. de Bono JS, Oudard S, Ozguroglu M et al (2010) Prednisone plus cabazitaxel or mitoxantrone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel treatment: a randomised open-label trial. Lancet 376:1147–1154

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. de Bono JS, Logothetis CJ, Molina A et al (2011) Abiraterone and increased survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 364:1995–2005

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Scher HI, Fizazi K, Saad F et al (2012) Increased survival with enzalutamide in prostate cancer after chemotherapy. N Engl J Med 367:1187–1197

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Parker C, Nilsson S, Heinrich D et al (2013) Alpha emitter radium-223 and survival in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 369:213–223

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Gillessen S, Omlin A, Attard G et al (2016) Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer: recommendations of the St Gallen Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference (APCCC) 2015. Ann Oncol 26(8):1589–1604

    Google Scholar 

  14. Gundem G, Van Loo P, Kremeyer B et al (2015) The evolutionary history of lethal metastatic prostate cancer. Nature 520:353–357

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Beltran H, Yelensky R, Frampton GM et al (2013) Targeted next-generation sequencing of advanced prostate cancer identifies potential therapeutic targets and disease heterogeneity. Eur Urol 63:920–926

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Mateo J, Carreira S, Sandhu S et al (2015) DNA-repair defects and olaparib in metastatic prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 373:1697–1708

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Hager S, Ackermann CJ, Joerger M et al (2016) Anti-tumour activity of platinum compounds in advanced prostate cancer—a systematic literature review. Ann Oncol 27:975–984

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Petrylak DP (2014) Practical guide to the use of chemotherapy in castration resistant prostate cancer. Can J Urol 21(Suppl 1):77–83

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Hurwitz M (2015) Chemotherapy in prostate cancer. Curr Oncol Rep 17:44–53

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Vignani F, Bertaglia V, Buttigliero C et al (2016) Skeletal metastases and impact of anticancer and bone-targeted agents in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Treat Rev 44:61–73

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Eisenberger MA, Simon R, O'Dwyer PJ et al (1985) A reevaluation of nonhormonal cytotoxic chemotherapy in the treatment of prostatic carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 3:827–841

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Schweizer T, Antonarakis ES (2014) Chemotherapy and its evolving role in the management of advanced prostate cancer. Asian J Androl 16:334–340

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Glode LM, Barqawi A, Crighton F et al (2003) Metronomic therapy with cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone for prostate carcinoma. Cancer 98:1643–1648

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Perry CM, McTavish D (1995) Estramustine phosphate sodium. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy in prostate cancer. Drugs Aging 7:49–74

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Bracarda S, Tonato M, Rosi P et al (2000) Oral estramustine and cyclophosphamide in patients with metastatic hormone refractory prostate carcinoma: a phase II study. Cancer 88:1438–1444

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Moore MJ, Osoba D, Murphy K et al (1994) Use of palliative endpoints to evaluate the effects of mitoxantrone and low-dose prednisone in patients with hormonally resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 12:689–694

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Kantoff PW, Block C, Letvak L et al (1993) 14-Day continuous infusion of mitoxantrone in hormone-refractory metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Am J Clin Oncol 16:489–491

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Osoba D, Tannock IF, Ernst DS, Neville AJ (1999) Health-related quality of life in men with metastatic prostate cancer treated with prednisone alone or mitoxantrone and prednisone. J Clin Oncol 17:1654–1663

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Kantoff PW, Halabi S, Conaway M et al (1999) Hydrocortisone with or without mitoxantrone in men with hormone-refractory prostate cancer: results oft he Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9182 study. J Clin Oncol 17:2506–2513

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Michaelson MD, Oudard S, Ou Y-C et al (2014) Randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of sunitinib plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in progressive, metastatic, castration resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 32:76–82

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Green AK, Corty RW, Wood WA et al (2015) Comparative effectiveness of mitoxantrone plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer after docetaxel failure. Oncologist 20:516–522

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  32. Desai A, Mitchison TJ (1997) Microtubule polymerization dynamics. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 13:83–117

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Cheetham P, Petrylak DP (2013) Tubulin-targeted agents including docetaxel and cabazitaxel. Cancer J 19:59–65

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Gan L, Chen S, Wang Y et al (2009) Inhibition of the androgen receptor as a novel mechanism of taxol chemotherapy in prostate cancer. Cancer Res 69:8386–8394

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Zhu ML, Horbinski CM, Garzotto M et al (2010) Tubulin-targeting chemotherapy impairs androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer. Cancer Res 70:7992–8002

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. Darshan MS, Loftus MS, Thadani-Mulero M et al (2011) Taxane-induced blockade to nuclear accumulation of the androgen receptor predicts clinical responses in metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer Res 71:6019–6029

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  37. Picus J, Schultz M (1999) Docetaxel (Taxotere) as monotherapy in the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer: preliminary results. Semin Oncol 26:14–18

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Friedland D, Cohen J, Miller R Jr et al (1999) A phase II trial of docetaxel (Taxotere) in hormone-refractory prostate cancer: correlation of antitumor effect to phosphorylation of Bcl-2. Semin Oncol 26:19–23

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Berry W, Dakhil S, Gregurich MA, Asmar L (2001) Phase II trial of single-agent weekly docetaxel in hormone-refractory, symptomatic, metastatic carcinoma of the prostate. Semin Oncol 28:8–15

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Berthold DR, Pond GR, Soban F et al (2008) Docetaxel plus prednisone or mitoxantrone plus prednisone for advanced prostate cancer: updated survival in the TAX 327 study. J Clin Oncol 26:242–245

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Machiels JP, Mazzeo F, Clausse M et al (2008) Prospective randomized study comparing docetaxel, estramustine, and prednisone with docetaxel and prednisone in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 26:5261–5268

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Kelly WK, Halabi S, Carducci M et al (2012) randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III trial comparing docetaxel and prednisone with or without bevacizumab in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: CALGB 90401. J Clin Oncol 30:1534–1540

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  43. Tannock IF, Fizazi K, Ivanov S et al (2013) Aflibercept versus placebo in combination with docetaxel and prednisone for treatment of men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (VENICE): a phase III, double-blind randomized trial. Lancet Oncol 14:760–768

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Quinn DI, Tangen CM, Hussain M et al (2013) Docetaxel and atrasentan versus docetaxel and placebo for men with advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer (SWOG 20401): a randomized phase III trial. Lancet Oncol 14:893–900

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. Araujo JC, Mathev P, Armstrong AJ et al (2012) Dasatinib combined with docetaxel for castration-resistant prostate cancer: result from a phase I-II study. Cancer 118:63–71

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Fizazi KS, Higano CS, Nelson JB et al (2013) Phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study of docetaxel in combination with zibotentan in patient with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 31:1740–1747

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Chi KN, Higano CS, Blumenstein BA et al (2015) Phase III SYNERGY trial: Docetaxel +/- custirsen and overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer and poor prognosis. J Clin Oncol 33(suppl; abstr 5009)

    Google Scholar 

  48. Recine F, Ceresoli GL, Baciarello G et al (2015) Improvement in survival and quality of life with new therapeutic agents in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: comparison among the results. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 59:400–410

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Buonerba C, Palmieri G, Di Lorenzo G (2010) Docetaxel rechallenge in castration-resistant prostate cancer: scientific legitimacy of common clinical practice. Eur Urol 58:636–637

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Di Lorenzo G, Buonerba C, Faiella A et al (2011) Phase II study of docetaxel re-treatment in docetaxel-pretreated castration-resistant prostate cancer. BJU Int 107:234–239

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Oudard S, Kramer G, Caffo O et al (2015) Docetaxel rechallenge after an initial good response in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. BJU Int 115:744–752

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Caffo O, Pappagallo G, Brugnara S et al (2012) Multiple rechallenges for castration-resistant prostate cancer patients responding to first-line docetaxel: assessment of clinical outcomes and predictive factors. Urology 79:644–649

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Antonarakis ES, Lu C, Wang H et al (2014) AR-V7 and resistance to enzalutamide and abiraterone in prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 371:1028–1038

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  54. Antonarakis ES, Lu C, Luber B et al (2015) Androgen receptor splice-variant 7 and efficacy of taxane chemotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. JAMA Oncol 1:582–591

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. Onstenk W, Sienwerts AM, Kraan J et al (2015) Efficacy of cabazitaxel in castration-resistant prostate cancer is independent of the presence of AR-V7 in circulating tumor cells. Eur Urol 68:935–945

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. Yap TA, Pezaro CJ, de Bono JS (2012) Cabazitaxel in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 12:1129–1136

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Seruga B, Ocana A, Tannock IF (2011) Drug resistance in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 8:12–23

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Tsao CK, Cutting E, Martin J, Oh WK (2014) The role of cabazitaxel in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Ther Adv Urol 6:97–104

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. Mita AC, Denis LJ, Rowinsky EK et al (2009) Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of XRP6258 (RPR116258A), a novel taxane, administered as a 1-hour infusion every 3 weeks in patients with advanced solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res 15:723–730

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Diéras V, Lortholary A, Laurence V et al (2013) Cabazitaxel in patients with advanced solid tumours: results of a phase I and pharmacokinetic study. Eur J Cancer 49:25–34

    CrossRef  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Pivot X, Koralewski P, Hidalgo J et al (2008) A multicenter phase II study of XRP6258 administered as a 1-h i.v. infusion every 3 weeks in taxane-resistant metastatic breast cancer patients. Ann Oncol 9:1547–1552

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  62. Villanueva C, Awada A, Campone M et al (2011) A multicentre dose-escalating study of cabazitaxel (XRP6258) in combination with capecitabine in patients with metastatic breast cancer progressing after anthracycline and taxane treatment: a phase I/II study. Eur J Cancer 47:1037–1045

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Bahl A, Oudard S, Tombal B et al (2012) Impact of cabazitaxel on 2-year survival and palliation of tumour-related pain in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated in the TROPIC trial. Ann Oncol 24:2402–2408

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  64. Heidenreich A, Scholz HJ, Rogenhofer S et al (2013) Cabazitaxel plus prednisone for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer progressing after docetaxel: results from the German compassionate-use programme. Eur Urol 63:977–982

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Castellano D, Antòn Aparicio LM, Esteban E et al (2014) Cabazitaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: safety data from the Spanish expanded access program. Expert Opin Drug Saf 13:1165–1173

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Heidenreich A, Bracarda S, Mason M et al (2014) Safety of cabazitaxel in senior adults with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: results of the European compassionate-use programme. Eur J Cancer 50:1090–1099

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Bracarda S, Gernone A, Gasparro D et al (2014) Real-world cabazitaxel safety: the Italian early-access program in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Future Oncol 10:975–983

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Bahl A, Masson S, Malik Z et al (2015) Final quality of life and safety data for patients with mCRPC treated with cabazitaxel in the UK Early Access Programme (EAP). BJU Int 16:880–887

    CrossRef  CAS  Google Scholar 

  69. Halabi S, Lin CY, Small EJ et al (2013) Prognostic model predicting metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer survival in men treated with second-line chemotherapy. J Natl Cancer Inst 105:1729–1737

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  70. De Bono J, Hardy-Bessard A, Kim C et al (2016) Phase III non-inferiority study of cabazitaxel 20 mg/m2 versus 25 mg/m2 in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel. J Clin Oncol 34(suppl; abstr 5008)

    Google Scholar 

  71. Sartor O, Oudard S, Sengelov L et al (2016) Cabazitaxel versus docetaxel in chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a three-arm Phase III study (FIRSTANA). J Clin Oncol 34(suppl; abstr 5006)

    Google Scholar 

  72. Regan MM, O’Donnell EK, Kelly WK et al (2010) Efficacy of carboplatin-taxane combinations in the management of castration-resistant prostate cancer: a pooled analysis of seven prospective clinical trials. Ann Oncol 21:312–318

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Aparicio AM, Harzstark AL, Corn PG et al (2013) Platinum-based chemotherapy for variant castrate-resistant prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 19:3621–3630

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  74. Lee JL, Ahn JH, Choi MK et al (2014) Gemcitabine-oxaliplatin plus prednisolone is active in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer for whom docetaxel-base chemotherapy failed. Br J Cancer 110:2472–2478

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  75. Sternberg CN, Petrylak DP, Sartor O et al (2009) Multinational, double-blind, phase III study of prednisone and either satraplatin or placebo in patients with castrate refractory prostate cancer progressing after prior chemotherapy: the SPARC trial. J Clin Oncol 27:5431–5438

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Sternberg CN (2005) Satraplatin in the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. BJU Int 96:990–994

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. Kelland LR, Abel G, McKeage MJ et al (1993) Preclinical antitumor evaluation of bis-acetatoammine-dichloro-cyclohexylamine platinum (IV): an orally active platinum drug. Cancer Res 53:2581–2586

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Shen MM, Abate-Shen C (2010) Molecular genetics of prostate cancer: new prospects for old challenges. Genes Dev 24:1967–2000

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  79. Grasso CS, Wu YM, Robinson DR et al (2012) The mutational landscape of lethal castrate resistant prostate cancer. Nature 487:239–243

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  80. Macconaill LE, Garraway LA (2010) Clinical implications of the cancer genome. J Clin Oncol 28:5219–5228

    CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  81. Stratton MR (2011) Exploring the genomes of cancer cells: progress and promise. Science 331:1553–1558

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Farmer H, McCabe N, Lord CJ et al (2005) Targeting the DNA repair defect in BRCA mutant cells as a therapeutic strategy. Nature 434:917–921

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  83. Bryant HE, Schultz N, Thomas HD et al (2005) Specific killing of BRCA2-deficient tumours with inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Nature 434:913–917

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Fong PC, Boss DS, Yap TA et al (2009) Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in tumors from BRCA mutation carriers. N Engl J Med 361:123–134

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  85. Lord CJ, Ashworth A (2012) The DNA damage response and cancer therapy. Nature 481:287–294

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. Kaufman B, Shapira-Frommer R, Schmutzler RK et al (2015) Olaparib monotherapy in patients with advanced cancer and a germline BRCA1/2 mutation. J Clin Oncol 33:244–250

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  87. Docetaxel and carboplatin in treating patients with metastatic, hormone resistant prostate cancer containing inactivated genes in the BRCA 1/2 pathway (NCT02598895); www.clinicaltrials.gov. Accessed on 29th May 2016.

  88. Moore SR, Reinberg Y, Zhang G (1992) Small cell carcinoma of prostate: effectiveness of hormonal versus chemotherapy. Urology 39:411–416

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  89. Papandreou CN, Daliani DD, Thall PF et al (2002) Results of a phase II study with doxorubicin, etoposide, and cisplatin in patients with fully characterized small-cell carcinoma of the prostate. J Clin Oncol 20:3072–3080

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. Beltran H, Tomlins S, Aparicio A et al (2014) Aggressive variants of castration-resistant prostate cancer. Clin Cancer Res 20:2846–2850

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  91. Beltran H, Prandi D, Mosquera JM et al (2016) Divergent clonal evolution of castration resistant neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Nat Med 22:298–305

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  92. Coleman RE (2001) Metastatic bone disease: clinical features, pathophysiology and treatment strategies. Cancer Treat Rev 27:165–176

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  93. Armstrong AJ, Garrett-Mayer E, Ou Yang YC et al (2007) Prostate-specific antigen and pain surrogacy analysis in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 25:3965–3970

    CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  94. Berthold DR, Pond GR, Roessner M et al (2008) Treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer with docetaxel or mitoxantrone: relationships between prostate-specific antigen, pain, and quality of life response and survival in the TAX-327 study. Clin Cancer Res 14:2763–2767

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. James ND, Sydes MR, Clarke NW et al (2016) Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage platform randomized controlled trial. Lancet 387:1163–1177

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  96. Gravis G, Boher J-M, Joly F et al (2015) Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) plus docetaxel versus ADT alone for hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer: long-term analysis of the GETUG-AFU-15 phase III trial. Eur Urol 70(2):256–262.

    Google Scholar 

  97. Sweeney CJ, Chen YH, Carducci M et al (2015) Chemohormonal therapy in metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 373:737–746

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  98. Sprenger C, Uo T, Plymate S (2015) Androgen receptor splice variant V7 (AR-V7) in circulating tumor cells: a coming of age for AR splice variants? Ann Oncol 26:1805–1807

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Giovanni Luca Ceresoli .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Ceresoli, G.L., Bonomi, M., Sauta, M.G. (2017). Chemotherapy. In: Bertoldo, F., Boccardo, F., Bombardieri, E., Evangelista, L., Valdagni, R. (eds) Bone Metastases from Prostate Cancer . Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42327-2_11

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-42327-2_11

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-42326-5

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-42327-2

  • eBook Packages: MedicineMedicine (R0)