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Effect of Nanoparticles on Plants with Regard to Physiological Attributes

  • M. Sheikh Mohamed
  • D. Sakthi KumarEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The growth parameters of plants are influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors. The increased interference of humans with the environment has led to heightened concern over such activities on the living systems, including plants. With tremendous progress being made in the field of engineering, manufacturing, construction, etc., onus has shifted to the possible effects of such developments on the ecosystem. Nanotechnology has emerged as an indispensable tool for the future, with its reach spanning across diverse domains. Such a rapid advance has resulted in the exodus of various types of nanomaterials into the environment. Thus, it becomes essential to understand the imminent effects, either advantageous or deleterious, of these nanomaterials on the living subjects advertently or inadvertently exposed to them. Numerous studies have focused on the effects of such nanomaterials in the nanoparticulate form on the mammalian system, with increased studies on the plant system as well. Due to the complex nature of uptake and translocation mechanism present in plants, it has been relatively difficult to unanimously devise a general dataset of the effects that nanoparticles (NPs) have on them. Research over the past years has documented mostly toxic effects of the NPs, either during the germination stage or with respect to the shoot–root length, while few others have explored the possibilities of utilizing them as carriers for chemicals as herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers, or in some cases genes. There have been numerous contradictory findings with some reports suggesting growth enhancing effects and others observing retarding effects of similar NPs on similar or different plant species. Such contradictions and lack of conclusive observations has slowed down the impact of nanotechnology in the agriculture industry when compared with the medical scene. This scenario demands a comprehensive calibration of the analysis and interpretation of NP–plant interaction and effects thereof from the physiological, biochemical, and photosynthetic level to the molecular level to decisively devise a verdict on the actual effects of nanoparticles on the plant system. This chapter summarizes the research conducted so far in this field and attempts at providing an outlook for the future.

Keywords

Nanotechnology Nanoparticles Plants Physiological Biochemical Photosynthesis Toxicity 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bio-Nano Electronics Research CentreToyo UniversityKawagoeJapan

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