Accelerated Measurement of the Long-Term Creep Behaviour of Plastics

  • F. Achereiner
  • K. Engelsing
  • M. Bastian
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 247)


Plastic parts are increasingly used in engineering applications with high demands on long-term mechanical behaviour. Therefore, suitable accelerated test methods are strongly required. The Stepped Isothermal Method (SIM), a short-term creep experiment during which the temperature is elevated stepwise, was originally developed for product testing of geosynthetics. This method was successfully applied to characterise the long-term creep behaviour of polypropylene tensile specimens. The measured strain can be rescaled and subsequently shifted according to the time–temperature superposition principle (TTSP) to build a master curve out of a single experiment. SIM master curves matched the results of the classical TTSP procedure while reducing the experimental effort to a minimum. This offers a useful tool, e.g. for a quick screening of material formulations during the early development stages or the at-line assessment of resins as part of quality assurance. Furthermore, SIM experiments can be performed until creep failure and, thus, accelerate the determination of the creep strength and the construction of creep rupture curves.


  1. 1.
    Ferry, J.D.: Viscoelastic Properties of Polymers, 3rd edn. Wiley, New York (1980)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Leaderman, H.: Creep and creep recovery in plasticized polyvinyl chloride. Ind. Eng. Chem. 35, 374–378 (1943)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tobolsky, A.V., Andrews, R.D.: Systems manifesting superposed elastic and viscous behavior. J. Chem. Phys. 13, 3–27 (1945)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Seitz, J.T., Balazs, C.F.: Application of time-temperature superposition principle to long term engineering properties of plastic materials. Polym. Eng. Sci. 8, 151–160 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Williams, M.L., Landel, R.F., Ferry, J.D.: The temperature dependence of relaxation mechanisms in amorphous polymers and other glass-forming liquids. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 3701–3707 (1955)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thornton, J.S., Allen, S.R., Thomas, R.W., Sandri, D.: The stepped isothermal method for time-temperature superposition and its application to creep data on polyester yarn. In: Rowe, R.K. (ed.) Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Geosynthetics (Atlanta, 25.– 29.03.1998). Industrial Fabrics Association International, Roseville (1998), pp. 699–706Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Thornton, J.S., Paulson, J.N., Sandri, D.: Conventional and stepped isothermal methods for characterizing long term creep strength of polyester geogrids creep of product. In: Rowe, R.K. (ed.) Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Geosynthetics (Atlanta, 25.– 29.03.1998). Industrial Fabrics Association International, Roseville (1998), pp. 691–698Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zornberg, J.G., Byler, B.R., Knudsen, J.W.: Creep of geotextiles using time–temperature superposition methods. J. Geotech. Geoenvironmental Eng. 130, 1158–1168 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bueno, B.S., Costanzi, M.A., Zornberg, J.G.: Conventional and accelerated creep tests on nonwoven needle-punched geotextiles. Geosynthetics Int. 12, 276–287 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yeo, S.-S., Hsuan, Y.G.: Evaluation of creep behavior of high density polyethylene and polyethylene-terephthalate geogrids. Geotext. Geomembr. 28, 409–421 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Alwis, K.G.N.C., Burgoyne, C.J.: Accelerated creep testing for aramid fibres using the stepped isothermal method. J. Mater. Sci. 43, 4789–4800 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Thomas, R., Nelson, J., Cuttino, D.: The use of the stepped isothermal method for estimating the long-term creep modulus, creep strain and strength of polyethylene pipe resins. In: Proceedings of Plastic Pipes XV (Vancouver, 20.–22.09.2010). Vancouver (2010), p. 10Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bozorg-Haddad, A., Iskander, M.: Predicting compressive creep behavior of virgin HDPE using thermal acceleration. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 23, 1154–1162 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Achereiner, F., Engelsing, K., Bastian, M., Heidemeyer, P.: Accelerated creep testing of polymers using the stepped isothermal method. Polym. Test. 32, 447–454 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Findley, W.N., Lai, J.S., Onaran, K.: Creep and Relaxation of Nonlinear Viscoelastic Materials with an Introduction to Linear Viscoelasticity. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics 18, North-Holland Publishing, Amsterdam New York Oxford (1976)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brinson, H.F., Brinson, L.C.: Polymer Engineering Science and Viscoelasticity—An Introduction. Springer, US, New York (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Achereiner
    • 1
  • K. Engelsing
    • 1
  • M. Bastian
    • 1
  1. 1.SKZ – German Plastics CenterWürzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations