The Fractography as a Tool in Failure Analysis—Possibilities and Limits

  • I. Kotter
  • W. Grellmann
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 247)


Damage to plastic products often results in a fracture. Therefore, the fracture surface examination (fractography) is particularly important when performing failure analysis. By application of standardized fracture surface structures, the location of crack initiation and the direction of crack growth can be determined. Furthermore, the influence of temperature, type of loading, loading speed or stress due to media on the plastic product can be detected. It is very important that fractography is applied in combination with other methods of polymer diagnostics and analytics as a tool for damage assessment. In particular at filled and reinforced polymeric materials, the applicability of fractography is limited because of the jagged fracture surface induced by fillers and reinforcement materials.


  1. 1.
    Grellmann, W., Bierögel, C., Reincke, K. (eds.): Lexikon der Kunststoffprüfung und Diagnostik. Merseburg (2015).
  2. 2.
    Brostow, W.: Performance of Plastics. Carl Hanser, Munich (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Brostow, W., Corneliussen, R.D.: Failure of Plastics. Carl Hanser, Munich (1986)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ezrin, M.: Plastics Failure Guide—Cause and Prevention. Carl Hanser, Munich (1996)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    VDI 3822 Part 2.1.4.: Failure analysis—Defects of thermoplastic products made of plastics caused by mechanical stress (2012)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moalli, J.: Plastics Failure—Analysis and Prevention, Plastics Design Library. Elsevier, Norwich (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kotter, I.: Die Möglichkeiten der Fraktografie in der Schadensanalyse. In: Proceedings VDI-Technikforum 03FO006008—Fehler- und Schadensanalyse an Kunststoffprodukten (Aachen, 03.–04.12.2014). Aachen (2013), pp. 11.1–11.18Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kurr, F.: Praxishandbuch der Qualitäts- und Schadensanalyse für Kunststoffe. Carl Hanser, Munich (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ehrenstein, G., Engel, L., Klingele, H., Schaper, H.: SEM of Plastics Failure. Carl Hanser, Munich (2011)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kotter, I., Grellmann, W.: Schadensanalyse an Kunststoffprodukten—Beispiele aus der Praxis. In: Borsutzki, M., Moginger, G. (eds.): Fortschritte in der Werkstoffprüfung für Forschung und Praxis (Proceedings Werkstoffprüfung 2012, Bad Neuenahr, 06.–07.12.2012). Stahleisen, Düsseldorf (2012), pp. 317–322Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kotter, I., Grellmann, W.: Schadensanalyse an Kunststoffprodukten—Die VDI-Richtlinie 3822 in der praktischen Anwendung. In: Proceedings Technomer 2013–23. Fachtagung über Verarbeitung und Anwendung von Polymeren (Chemnitz, 14.–15.11.2013). Chemnitz (2013), KP V 8.6, pp. 1–6Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kotter, I.: Morphologie-Zähigkeits-Korrelationen von EPR-modifizierten Polypropylenwerkstoffen. Mensch & Buch, Berlin (2003)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Kotter
    • 1
  • W. Grellmann
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Polymer Service GmbH MerseburgMerseburgGermany
  2. 2.Centre of EngineeringMartin Luther University Halle-WittenbergHalle/SaaleGermany

Personalised recommendations