Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: Metabolic Support

  • Michele Umbrello
  • Danilo Radrizzani
  • Gaetano Iapichino
Chapter

Abstract

Nutritional support to ARDS patients shares metabolic concepts common to other categories of critically ill patients; however, it generates a particular concern due to the underlying limitation of oxygen supply and the difficulties of carbon dioxide disposal. In the present chapter, after shortly summarizing the pathophysiology of critical illness, stress response, and patients’ metabolic requirements, we will describe the characteristic features of artificial nutrition and metabolic support in patients with acute respiratory failure. We will underline the fact that, in patients with ARDS, several aspects of energy consumption physiology and of substrate supply, disposal and transformation, oxidation, and storage which, in the absence of respiratory failure may have a less relevant impact, have to be then carefully taken into account.

The physiologic effects of every substrate metabolism will be described, as for their effect in terms of energy consumption, their impact on diet-induced thermogenesis, and their cost for disposal, transformation, and storage. Moreover, we will review any possible direct effect of single macronutrients on lung tissue during ARDS. In the end, we will summarize the peculiar characteristics of metabolic control of critically ill patients with ARDS, and a suggestion as to the ideal methods of metabolic support will be provided.

Keywords

Acute Respiratory Failure Nutritional Support Indirect Calorimetry Medium Chain Triglyceride Rest Energy Expenditure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michele Umbrello
    • 1
  • Danilo Radrizzani
    • 2
  • Gaetano Iapichino
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Unità Operativa di Anestesia e RianimazioneOspedaliera San Paolo-Polo Universitario, ASST Santi Paolo e CarloMilanItaly
  2. 2.Unità Operativa di Anestesia e RianimazioneOspedale Nuovo di Legnano, ASST Ovest MilaneseLegnanoItaly
  3. 3.Unità Operativa di Anestesia e RianimazioneOspedaliera San Paolo-Polo Universitario, ASST Santi Paolo e CarloMilanItaly
  4. 4.Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Medico-Chirurgica e dei TrapiantiUniversità degli Studi di MilanoMilanItaly

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