Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS): Definition, Incidence, and Outcome

  • Rémi Coudroy
  • Florence Boissier
  • Arnaud W. Thille
Chapter

Abstract

The definition of ARDS has considerably evolved over the last 50 years and is still challenging. Using the current Berlin definition, more than 10% of the patients admitted in the ICU and more than 20% of the patients under mechanical ventilation meet clinical criteria for ARDS. Several RCTs have found a reduction of mortality over the last 15 years using protective ventilation with low tidal volumes and high PEEP levels, and using neuromuscular blockers and prone positioning. However, a large international survey recently highlighted that adherence to this “protective bundle” in the real life has remained far from optimal despite improvement over the last years. Hence, negative outcomes of ARDS patients have hardly decreased in the last decade, and survivors still have a markedly altered quality of life.

Keywords

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Patient Peep Level Diffuse Alveolar Damage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Ashbaugh DG, Bigelow DB, Petty TL, Levine BE (1967) Acute respiratory distress in adults. Lancet 2:319–323CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Petty TL, Ashbaugh DG (1971) The adult respiratory distress syndrome. Clinical features, factors influencing prognosis and principles of management. Chest 60:233–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bone RC, Francis PB, Pierce AK (1976) Intravascular coagulation associated with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Med 61:585–589CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pepe PE, Potkin RT, Reus DH, Hudson LD, Carrico CJ (1982) Clinical predictors of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Surg 144:124–130CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Murray JF, Matthay MA, Luce JM, Flick MR (1988) An expanded definition of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 138:720–723CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bernard GR, Artigas A, Brigham KL, Carlet J, Falke K, Hudson L, Lamy M, Legall JR, Morris A, Spragg R (1994) The American-European Consensus Conference on ARDS. Definitions, mechanisms, relevant outcomes, and clinical trial coordination. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149:818–824CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Phua J, Stewart TE, Ferguson ND (2008) Acute respiratory distress syndrome 40 years later: time to revisit its definition. Crit Care Med 36:2912–2921CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Force ADT, Ranieri VM, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT, Ferguson ND, Caldwell E, Fan E, Camporota L, Slutsky AS (2012) Acute respiratory distress syndrome: the Berlin Definition. JAMA 307:2526–2533Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ferguson ND, Fan E, Camporota L, Antonelli M, Anzueto A, Beale R, Brochard L, Brower R, Esteban A, Gattinoni L, Rhodes A, Slutsky AS, Vincent JL, Rubenfeld GD, Thompson BT, Ranieri VM (2012) The Berlin definition of ARDS: an expanded rationale, justification, and supplementary material. Intensive Care Med 38:1573–1582CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Guerin C, Thompson T, Brower R (2015) The ten diseases that look like ARDS. Intensive Care Med 41:1099–1102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wheeler AP, Bernard GR, Thompson BT, Schoenfeld D, Wiedemann HP, deBoisblanc B, Connors AF Jr, Hite RD, Harabin AL (2006) Pulmonary-artery versus central venous catheter to guide treatment of acute lung injury. N Engl J Med 354:2213–2224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ferguson ND, Meade MO, Hallett DC, Stewart TE (2002) High values of the pulmonary artery wedge pressure in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med 28:1073–1077CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Richard C, Warszawski J, Anguel N, Deye N, Combes A, Barnoud D, Boulain T, Lefort Y, Fartoukh M, Baud F, Boyer A, Brochard L, Teboul JL (2003) Early use of the pulmonary artery catheter and outcomes in patients with shock and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 290:2713–2720CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Meade MO, Cook DJ, Guyatt GH, Slutsky AS, Arabi YM, Cooper DJ, Davies AR, Hand LE, Zhou Q, Thabane L, Austin P, Lapinsky S, Baxter A, Russell J, Skrobik Y, Ronco JJ, Stewart TE (2008) Ventilation strategy using low tidal volumes, recruitment maneuvers, and high positive end-expiratory pressure for acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 299:637–645CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mercat A, Richard JC, Vielle B, Jaber S, Osman D, Diehl JL, Lefrant JY, Prat G, Richecoeur J, Nieszkowska A, Gervais C, Baudot J, Bouadma L, Brochard L (2008) Positive end-expiratory pressure setting in adults with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 299:646–655CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Brower RG, Lanken PN, MacIntyre N, Matthay MA, Morris A, Ancukiewicz M, Schoenfeld D, Thompson BT (2004) Higher versus lower positive end-expiratory pressures in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 351:327–336CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Briel M, Meade M, Mercat A, Brower RG, Talmor D, Walter SD, Slutsky AS, Pullenayegum E, Zhou Q, Cook D, Brochard L, Richard JC, Lamontagne F, Bhatnagar N, Stewart TE, Guyatt G (2010) Higher vs lower positive end-expiratory pressure in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 303:865–873CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ferguson ND, Kacmarek RM, Chiche JD, Singh JM, Hallett DC, Mehta S, Stewart TE (2004) Screening of ARDS patients using standardized ventilator settings: influence on enrollment in a clinical trial. Intensive Care Med 30:1111–1116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Villar J, Perez-Mendez L, Blanco J, Anon JM, Blanch L, Belda J, Santos-Bouza A, Fernandez RL, Kacmarek RM, Spanish Initiative for Epidemiology S, Therapies for AN (2013) A universal definition of ARDS: the PaO2/FiO2 ratio under a standard ventilatory setting--a prospective, multicenter validation study. Intensive Care Med 39:583–592Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Villar J, Perez-Mendez L, Lopez J, Belda J, Blanco J, Saralegui I, Suarez-Sipmann F, Lubillo S, Kacmarek RM (2007) An early PEEP/FiO2 trial identifies different degrees of lung injury in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 176:795–804Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Aboab J, Louis B, Jonson B, Brochard L (2006) Relation between PaO2/FiO2ratio and FiO2: a mathematical description. Intensive Care Med 32:1494–1497Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Britos M, Smoot E, Liu KD, Thompson BT, Checkley W, Brower RG (2011) The value of positive end-expiratory pressure and Fio(2) criteria in the definition of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 39:2025–2030CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Guerin C, Reignier J, Richard JC, Beuret P, Gacouin A, Boulain T, Mercier E, Badet M, Mercat A, Baudin O, Clavel M, Chatellier D, Jaber S, Rosselli S, Mancebo J, Sirodot M, Hilbert G, Bengler C, Richecoeur J, Gainnier M, Bayle F, Bourdin G, Leray V, Girard R, Baboi L, Ayzac L (2013) Prone positioning in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 368:2159–2168CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Katzenstein AL, Bloor CM, Leibow AA (1976) Diffuse alveolar damage--the role of oxygen, shock, and related factors. A review. Am J Pathol 85:209–228PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tomashefski JF Jr (2000) Pulmonary pathology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Clin Chest Med 21:435–466CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Suchyta MR, Elliott CG, Colby T, Rasmusson BY, Morris AH, Jensen RL (1991) Open lung biopsy does not correlate with pulmonary function after the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest 99:1232–1237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Warner DO, Warner MA, Divertie MB (1988) Open lung biopsy in patients with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory failure. Am Rev Respir Dis 137:90–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Papazian L, Thomas P, Bregeon F, Garbe L, Zandotti C, Saux P, Gaillat F, Drancourt M, Auffray JP, Gouin F (1998) Open-lung biopsy in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anesthesiology 88:935–944CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Patel SR, Karmpaliotis D, Ayas NT, Mark EJ, Wain J, Thompson BT, Malhotra A (2004) The role of open-lung biopsy in ARDS. Chest 125:197–202CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Esteban A, Fernandez-Segoviano P, Frutos-Vivar F, Aramburu JA, Najera L, Ferguson ND, Alia I, Gordo F, Rios F (2004) Comparison of clinical criteria for the acute respiratory distress syndrome with autopsy findings. Ann Intern Med 141:440–445CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cho MH, Malhotra A, Donahue DM, Wain JC, Harris RS, Karmpaliotis D, Patel SR (2006) Mechanical ventilation and air leaks after lung biopsy for acute respiratory distress syndrome. Ann Thorac Surg 82:261–266CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kao KC, Tsai YH, Wu YK, Chen NH, Hsieh MJ, Huang SF, Huang CC (2006) Open lung biopsy in early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care 10:R106CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lim SY, Suh GY, Choi JC, Koh WJ, Lim SY, Han J, Lee KS, Shim YM, Chung MP, Kim H, Kwon OJ (2007) Usefulness of open lung biopsy in mechanically ventilated patients with undiagnosed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates: influence of comorbidities and organ dysfunction. Crit Care 11:R93CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Arabi Y, Ahmed R, Ahmed Q, Rahman MU, Yamani N (2007) Risks and benefits of open-lung biopsy in the mechanically ventilated critically ill population: a cohort study and literature review. Med Sci Monit 13:CR365–CR371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Papazian L, Doddoli C, Chetaille B, Gernez Y, Thirion X, Roch A, Donati Y, Bonnety M, Zandotti C, Thomas P (2007) A contributive result of open-lung biopsy improves survival in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. Crit Care Med 35:755–762CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Baumann HJ, Kluge S, Balke L, Yekebas E, Izbicki JR, Amthor M, Kreymann G, Meyer A (2008) Yield and safety of bedside open lung biopsy in mechanically ventilated patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome. Surgery 143:426–433CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lin CY, Kao KC, Tian YC, Jenq CC, Chang MY, Chen YC, Fang JT, Huang CC, Tsai YH, Yang CW (2009) The RIFLE score increases the accuracy of outcome prediction in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome undergoing open lung biopsy. Respiration 77:398–406CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    de Hemptinne Q, Remmelink M, Brimioulle S, Salmon I, Vincent JL (2009) ARDS: a clinicopathological confrontation. Chest 135:944–949CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Charbonney E, Robert J, Pache JC, Chevrolet JC, Eggimann P (2009) Impact of bedside open lung biopsies on the management of mechanically ventilated immunocompromised patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome of unknown etiology. J Crit Care 24:122–128CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Melo N, Figueiredo S, Morais A, Souto Moura C, Pinho P, Bastos P, Oliveira T (2009) Open lung biopsy in patients on mechanical ventilation with suspected diffuse lung disease. Rev Port Pneumol 15:597–611CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sarmiento X, Guardiola JJ, Almirall J, Mesalles E, Mate JL, Soler M, Klamburg J (2011) Discrepancy between clinical criteria for diagnosing acute respiratory distress syndrome secondary to community acquired pneumonia with autopsy findings of diffuse alveolar damage. Respir Med 105:1170–1175CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Thille AW, Esteban A, Fernandez-Segoviano P, Rodriguez JM, Aramburu JA, Penuelas O, Cortes-Puch I, Cardinal-Fernandez P, Lorente JA, Frutos-Vivar F (2013) Comparison of the Berlin definition for acute respiratory distress syndrome with autopsy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 187:761–767CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Guerin C, Bayle F, Leray V, Debord S, Stoian A, Yonis H, Roudaut JB, Bourdin G, Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Bucher E, Ayzac L, Lantuejoul S, Philipponnet C, Kemeny JL, Souweine B, Richard JC (2015) Open lung biopsy in nonresolving ARDS frequently identifies diffuse alveolar damage regardless of the severity stage and may have implications for patient management. Intensive Care Med 41:222–230CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kao KC, Hu HC, Chang CH, Hung CY, Chiu LC, Li SH, Lin SW, Chuang LP, Wang CW, Li LF, Chen NH, Yang CT, Huang CC, Tsai YH (2015) Diffuse alveolar damage associated mortality in selected acute respiratory distress syndrome patients with open lung biopsy. Crit Care 19:228CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gibelin A, Parrot A, Maitre B, Brun-Buisson C, Mekontso Dessap A, Fartoukh M, de Prost N (2016) Acute respiratory distress syndrome mimickers lacking common risk factors of the Berlin definition. Intensive Care Med 42:164–172CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cardinal-Fernandez P, Bajwa EK, Dominguez-Calvo A, Menendez JM, Papazian L, Thompson BT (2016) The presence of diffuse alveolar damage on open lung biopsy is associated with mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Chest 149(5):1155–1164.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bersten AD, Edibam C, Hunt T, Moran J, Australian, New Zealand Intensive Care Society Clinical Trials G (2002) Incidence and mortality of acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome in three Australian States. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 165:443–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brun-Buisson C, Minelli C, Bertolini G, Brazzi L, Pimentel J, Lewandowski K, Bion J, Romand JA, Villar J, Thorsteinsson A, Damas P, Armaganidis A, Lemaire F (2004) Epidemiology and outcome of acute lung injury in European intensive care units. Results from the ALIVE study. Intensive Care Med 30:51–61CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Rubenfeld GD, Caldwell E, Peabody E, Weaver J, Martin DP, Neff M, Stern EJ, Hudson LD (2005) Incidence and outcomes of acute lung injury. N Engl J Med 353:1685–1693CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bellani G, Laffey JG, Pham T, Fan E, Brochard L, Esteban A, Gattinoni L, van Haren F, Larsson A, McAuley DF, Ranieri M, Rubenfeld G, Thompson BT, Wrigge H, Slutsky AS, Pesenti A (2016) Epidemiology, patterns of care, and mortality for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome in intensive care units in 50 countries. JAMA 315:788–800CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Phua J, Badia JR, Adhikari NK, Friedrich JO, Fowler RA, Singh JM, Scales DC, Stather DR, Li A, Jones A, Gattas DJ, Hallett D, Tomlinson G, Stewart TE, Ferguson ND (2009) Has mortality from acute respiratory distress syndrome decreased over time?: a systematic review. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 179:220–227CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Amato MB, Barbas CS, Medeiros DM, Magaldi RB, Schettino GP, Lorenzi-Filho G, Kairalla RA, Deheinzelin D, Munoz C, Oliveira R, Takagaki TY, Carvalho CR (1998) Effect of a protective-ventilation strategy on mortality in the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 338:347–354CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network (2000) N Engl J Med 342:1301–1308Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Papazian L, Forel JM, Gacouin A, Penot-Ragon C, Perrin G, Loundou A, Jaber S, Arnal JM, Perez D, Seghboyan JM, Constantin JM, Courant P, Lefrant JY, Guerin C, Prat G, Morange S, Roch A, Investigators AS (2010) Neuromuscular blockers in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 363:1107–1116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Villar J, Blanco J, Kacmarek RM (2016) Current incidence and outcome of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Curr Opin Crit Care 22:1–6CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Arabi YM, Cook DJ, Zhou Q, Smith O, Hand L, Turgeon AF, Matte A, Mehta S, Graham R, Brierley K, Adhikari NK, Meade MO, Ferguson ND, Canadian Critical Care Trials G (2015) Characteristics and outcomes of eligible nonenrolled patients in a mechanical ventilation trial of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 192:1306–1313CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Montgomery AB, Stager MA, Carrico CJ, Hudson LD (1985) Causes of mortality in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 132:485–489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Stapleton RD, Wang BM, Hudson LD, Rubenfeld GD, Caldwell ES, Steinberg KP (2005) Causes and timing of death in patients with ARDS. Chest 128:525–532CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Mehter HM, Wiener RS, Walkey AJ (2014) “Do not resuscitate” decisions in acute respiratory distress syndrome. A secondary analysis of clinical trial data. Ann Am Thorac Soc 11:1592–1596Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Eisner MD, Thompson T, Hudson LD, Luce JM, Hayden D, Schoenfeld D, Matthay MA (2001) Efficacy of low tidal volume ventilation in patients with different clinical risk factors for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 164:231–236CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Calfee CS, Delucchi K, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Ware LB, Matthay MA (2014) Subphenotypes in acute respiratory distress syndrome: latent class analysis of data from two randomised controlled trials. Lancet Respir Med 2:611–620CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Thille AW, Esteban A, Fernandez-Segoviano P, Rodriguez JM, Aramburu JA, Vargas-Errazuriz P, Martin-Pellicer A, Lorente JA, Frutos-Vivar F (2013) Chronology of histological lesions in acute respiratory distress syndrome with diffuse alveolar damage: a prospective cohort study of clinical autopsies. Lancet Respir Med 1:395–401CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Matamis D, Lemaire F, Harf A, Brun-Buisson C, Ansquer JC, Atlan G (1984) Total respiratory pressure-volume curves in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Chest 86:58–66CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Burnham EL, Janssen WJ, Riches DW, Moss M, Downey GP (2014) The fibroproliferative response in acute respiratory distress syndrome: mechanisms and clinical significance. Eur Respir J 43:276–285CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Burnham EL, Hyzy RC, Paine R 3rd, Coley C 2nd, Kelly AM, Quint LE, Lynch D, Janssen WJ, Moss M, Standiford TJ (2013) Chest CT features are associated with poorer quality of life in acute lung injury survivors. Crit Care Med 41:445–456CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Herridge MS, Cheung AM, Tansey CM, Matte-Martyn A, Diaz-Granados N, Al-Saidi F, Cooper AB, Guest CB, Mazer CD, Mehta S, Stewart TE, Barr A, Cook D, Slutsky AS (2003) One-year outcomes in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 348:683–693CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Herridge MS, Tansey CM, Matte A, Tomlinson G, Diaz-Granados N, Cooper A, Guest CB, Mazer CD, Mehta S, Stewart TE, Kudlow P, Cook D, Slutsky AS, Cheung AM (2011) Functional disability 5 years after acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 364:1293–1304CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Fan E, Dowdy DW, Colantuoni E, Mendez-Tellez PA, Sevransky JE, Shanholtz C, Himmelfarb CR, Desai SV, Ciesla N, Herridge MS, Pronovost PJ, Needham DM (2014) Physical complications in acute lung injury survivors: a two-year longitudinal prospective study. Crit Care Med 42:849–859CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bienvenu OJ, Colantuoni E, Mendez-Tellez PA, Shanholtz C, Dennison-Himmelfarb CR, Pronovost PJ, Needham DM (2015) Cooccurrence of and remission from general anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms after acute lung injury: a 2-year longitudinal study. Crit Care Med 43:642–653CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Huang M, Parker AM, Bienvenu OJ, Dinglas VD, Colantuoni E, Hopkins RO, Needham DM (2016) Psychiatric symptoms in acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors: a 1-year national multicenter study. Crit Care Med 44(5):954–965Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dowdy DW, Eid MP, Dennison CR, Mendez-Tellez PA, Herridge MS, Guallar E, Pronovost PJ, Needham DM (2006) Quality of life after acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med 32:1115–1124CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Davidson TA, Caldwell ES, Curtis JR, Hudson LD, Steinberg KP (1999) Reduced quality of life in survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome compared with critically ill control patients. JAMA 281:354–360CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Biehl M, Kashyap R, Ahmed AH, Reriani MK, Ofoma UR, Wilson GA, Li G, Malinchoc M, Sloan JA, Gajic O (2015) Six-month quality-of-life and functional status of acute respiratory distress syndrome survivors compared to patients at risk: a population-based study. Crit Care 19:356CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rémi Coudroy
    • 1
    • 2
  • Florence Boissier
    • 1
    • 2
  • Arnaud W. Thille
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.CHU de Poitiers, Réanimation MédicalePoitiersFrance
  2. 2.INSERM CIC 1402 (ALIVE Group)Université de Poitiers, Faculté de MédecinePoitiersFrance
  3. 3.Réanimation Médicale, CHU de PoitiersPoitiers CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations