Advertisement

Substance-Abusing Mothers: Toward an Understanding of Parenting and Risk Behavior

  • Mor YehudaiEmail author
  • Orly Sarid
  • Alexander Reznik
  • Patricia A. Findley
  • Richard Isralowitz
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Mental Health and Addiction book series (AMHA)

Abstract

The use of harmful substances is a worldwide problem that has a major impact on maternal parenting skills. This study, conducted in cooperation with Professor Debra Murphy of Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, examined personal characteristics of substance-abusing mothers and their parenting skills. The study was conducted at the methadone maintenance clinic in Israel where lifetime substance users receive methadone treatment. Results show type of drug used affected anxiety and parenting skills—mothers using alcohol and cannabis had higher stress levels and parenting problems; those using prescription drugs with older children had higher levels of anxiety. Also, higher levels of anxiety were found among mothers who served time in jail/prison. Surprisingly, mothers using opiates reported lower levels of stress compared to mothers that do not. As for parental skills, mothers of children over the age of 18 had more difficulties gaining their child’s cooperation. Mothers who reported higher levels of suicidal thoughts or attempts showed increased parental disappointment about the child, felt rejected by the child, were not satisfied by their parent–child interactions, and had a hard time gaining the child’s cooperation. This study, believed to be the first of its kind in Israel, provides important details about substance-abusing mothers in methadone maintenance treatment and information relevant for service provision and staff training.

Keywords

Suicidal Behavior Parenting Stress Suicidal Thought Antisocial Personality Disorder Methadone Maintenance Treatment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Arria, A. M., Mericle, A. A., Meyers, K., & Winters, K. C. (2012). Parental substance use impairment, parenting and substance use disorder risk. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 43(1), 114–122.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Borges, G., Walters, E. E., & Kessler, R. C. (2000). Associations of substance use, abuse, and dependence with subsequent suicidal behavior. American Journal of Epidemiology, 151(8), 781–789.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bryan, C. J., Morrow, C. E., Anestis, M. D., & Joiner, T. E. (2010). A preliminary test of the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior in a military sample. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(3), 347–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bukstein, O. G., Brent, O. A., Perper, J. A., Moritz, G., Baugher, M., Schweers, J., et al. (1993). Risk factors for completed suicide among adolescents with a lifetime history of substance abuse: A case‐control study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 88(6), 403–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Daig, I., Herschbach, P., Lehmann, A., Knoll, N., & Decker, O. (2009). Gender and age differences in domain-specific life satisfaction and the impact of depressive and anxiety symptoms: A general population survey from Germany. Quality of Life Research, 18(6), 669–678.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Delgadillo, J., Payne, S., Gilbody, S., Godfrey, C., Gore, S., Jessop, D., et al. (2012). Brief case finding tools for anxiety disorders: Validation of GAD-7 and GAD- 2 in addictions treatment. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 125(1-2), 37–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Demirbas, H., Celik, S., İlhan, İ. Ö., & Doğan, Y. B. (2003). An examination of suicide probability in alcoholic in-patients. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 38(1), 67–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Dhossche, D. M., Meloukheia, A. M., & Chakravorty, S. (2000). The association of suicide attempts and comorbid depression and substance abuse in psychiatric consultation patients. General Hospital Psychiatry, 22(4), 281–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dunn, M. G., Tarter, R. E., Mezzich, A. C., Vanyukov, M., Kirisci, L., & Kirillova, G. (2002). Origins and consequences of child neglect in substance abuse families. Clinical Psychology Review, 22(7), 1063–1090.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Fals-Stewart, W., Fincham, F. D., & Kelley, M. L. (2004). Substance-abusing parents’ attitudes toward allowing their custodial children to participate in treatment: A comparison of mothers versus fathers. Journal of Family Psychology, 18(4), 666–671.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Felts, W. M., Chernier, T., & Barnes, R. (1992). Drug use and suicide ideation and behavior among North Carolina public school students. American Journal of Public Health, 82(6), 870–872.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Forman, S. G., & Kalafat, J. (1998). Substance abuse and suicide: Promoting resilience against self-destructive behavior in youth. School Psychology Review, 27(3), 398–406.Google Scholar
  13. Gordon, C. T., & Hinshaw, S. P. (2015). Parenting stress as a mediator between childhood ADHD and early adult female outcomes. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 1–12.Google Scholar
  14. Granfield, R., & Cloud, W. (1999). Coming clean: Overcoming addiction without treatment. New York: NYU Press.Google Scholar
  15. Gueta, K., & Addad, M. (2015). A house of cards: The long-term recovery experience of former drug-dependent Israeli women. Women’s Studies International Forum, 48, 18–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Brown, E. O., Vadasy, P. F., Roberts, C., Fitzmahan, D., et al. (1988). Preparing for the drug (free) years: A family activity book. Seattle, WA: Comprehensive Health Education Foundation.Google Scholar
  17. Holmila, M., Raitasalo, K., & Kosola, M. (2013). Mothers who abuse alcohol and drugs: Health and social harms among substance-abusing mothers of small children in three child cohorts. Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 30(5), 361–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Isralowitz, R. (2003). Female heroin addicts in Israel. Psychiatric Times, Global Watch Special Edition, 20(11), 25–27.Google Scholar
  19. Isralowitz, R., Afifi, M., & Reznik, A. (2016). Toward uniform data collection and monitoring of Israeli and Palestinian adolescent drug use. In R. Isralowitz & P. A. Findley (Eds.), Mental health and addiction care in the Middle East (pp. 47–58). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  20. Isralowitz, R., & Bar Hamburger, R. (2002). Immigrant and native-born female heroin addicts in Israel. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 34(1), 97–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Isralowitz, R., & Borkin, S. (2002). Russian-speaking immigrants: Factors associated with heroin use. In R. Isralowitz, M. Afifi, & R. Rawson (Eds.), Drug problems: Cross-cultural policy and program development (pp. 89–112). Westport, CT: Auburn House.Google Scholar
  22. Isralowitz, R., & Myers, P. L. (2011). Illicit drugs: Health and medical issues today. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, LLC.Google Scholar
  23. Isralowitz, R., & Reznik, A. (2009). Problem severity profiles of substance abusing women in therapeutic treatment facilities. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 7(2), 368–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kandel, D. B. (1990). Parenting styles, drug use, and children’s adjustment in families of young adults. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 42(1), 183–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kelley, S. J. (1992). Parenting stress and child maltreatment in drug-exposed children. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16(3), 317–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kelley, S. J. (1998). Stress and coping behaviors of substance-abusing mothers. Journal of the Society of Pediatric Nurses, 3(3), 103–110.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Khan, A., Leventhal, R. M., Khan, S., & Brown, W. A. (2002). Suicide risk in patients with anxiety disorders: A meta-analysis of the FDA database. Journal of Affective Disorders, 68(2), 183–190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Korneluk, Y. G., & Lee, C. M. (1998). Children’s adjustment to parental physical illness. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 1(3), 179–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Leigh, B., & Milgrom, J. (2008). Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress. BMC Psychiatry, 8(24), 1–11.Google Scholar
  30. Meyers, J. L., Shmulewitz, D., Elliott, J. C., Thompson, R. G., Aharonovich, E., Spivak, B., et al. (2014). Parental alcohol history differentially predicts offspring disorders in distinct subgroups in Israel. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 75(5), 859–869.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Mistry, R., Stevens, G. D., Sareen, H., De Vogil, R., & Halfon, N. (2007). Parenting related stressors and self- reported mental health of mothers with young children. American Journal of Public Health, 97(7), 1261–1268.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Mowbray, C. T., Oyserman, D., & Ross, S. (1995). Parenting and the significance of children for women with a serious mental illness. The Journal of Mental Health Administration, 22(2), 189–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Murphy, D. A. (2016). A parenting and self-care intervention for substance-using mothers: Promoting resilience among Israeli and Palestinian people. In R. Isralowitz & P. A. Findley (Eds.), Mental health and addiction care in the Middle East (pp. 59–80). New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  34. Murphy, D. A., Austin, E. L., & Greenwell, L. (2007). Correlates of HIV-related stigma among HIV-positive mothers and their uninfected adolescent children. Women & Health, 44(3), 19–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Murphy, D. A., Durako, S. J., Moscicki, A. B., Vermund, S. H., Schwarz, D. F., & Muenz, L. R. (2001). No change in health risk behaviors over time among HIV infected adolescents in care: Role of psychological distress. The Journal of Adolescent Health, 29(3), 57–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Murphy, D. A., Marelich, W. D., & Herbeck, D. M. (2012). Impact of maternal HIV health: A 12-year study of children in the parents and children coping together project. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51(4), 313–318.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. Myers, P. L., & Isralowitz, R. (2011). Alcohol. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.Google Scholar
  38. Niccols, A., Milligan, K., Smith, A., Sword, W., Thabane, L., & Henderson, J. (2012). Integrated programs for mothers with substance abuse issues and their children: A systematic review of studies reporting on child outcomes. Child Abuse & Neglect, 36(4), 308–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. O’Boyle, M., & Brandon, E. A. A. (1998). Suicide attempts, substance abuse, and personality. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 15(4), 353–356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. O’Brien, C. P., & McLellan, A. T. (1996). Myths about the treatment of addiction. Lancet, 347, 237–240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Osman, A., Barrios, F. X., Gutierrez, P. M., Wrangham, J. J., Kopper, B. A., Truelove, R. S., et al. (2002). The Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation (PANSI) Inventory: Psychometric evaluation with adolescent psychiatric inpatient samples. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79(3), 512–530.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Peles, E., Schreiber, S., & Adelson, M. (2006). Factors predicting retention in treatment: 10-year experience of a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinic in Israel. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 82(3), 211–217.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Putnick, D. L., Bornstein, M. H., Hendricks, C., Painter, K. M., Suwalsky, J. T., & Collins, W. A. (2008). Parenting stress, perceived parenting behaviors, and adolescent self- concept in European American families. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(5), 752–762.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Ribeiro, J. D., Pease, J. L., Gutierrez, P. M., Silva, C., Bernert, R. A., Rudd, M. D., et al. (2012). Sleep problems outperform depression and hopelessness as cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of suicidal ideation and behavior in young adults in the military. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136(3), 743–750.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 22(166), 1092–1097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Steinberg, L., & Silk, J. S. (2002). Parenting adolescents. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (pp. 103–133). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  47. Straussner, S., & Zelvin, E. (1997). Gender and addictions: Men and women in treatment. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  48. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2009). The NSDUH report: Child living with substance-dependent or substance-abusing parents: 2002–2007. Rockville, MD: Office of Applied Studies.Google Scholar
  49. Taylor, R. D., Rodriguez, A. U., Seaton, E. K., & Dominguez, A. (2004). Association of financial resources with parenting and adolescent adjustment in African American families. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(3), 267–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Velez, M. L., Jansson, L. M., Montoya, I. D., Schweitzer, W., Golden, A., & Svikis, D. (2004). Parenting knowledge among substance abusing women in treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 27, 215–222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Walsh, C., MacMillan, H. L., & Jamieson, E. (2003). The relationship between parental substance abuse and child maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario health supplement. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(12), 1409–1425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Webster-Stratton, C. (2001). The incredible years: Parents, teachers, and children training series. Residential Treatment for Children & Youth, 18(3), 31–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Widom, C. S., & Hiller-Sturmhofel, S. (2001). Alcohol abuse as a risk factor for and consequence of child abuse. Alcohol Research & Health, 25, 52–57.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mor Yehudai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Orly Sarid
    • 2
  • Alexander Reznik
    • 3
  • Patricia A. Findley
    • 4
  • Richard Isralowitz
    • 2
  1. 1.Spitzer School of Social Work, Ben Gurion University of the NegevBeer ShevaIsrael
  2. 2.Spitzer Department of Social Work, Ben Gurion UniversityBeer ShevaIsrael
  3. 3.Senior Research AssociateRegional Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research (RADAR) Center, Ben Gurion UniversityBeer ShevaIsrael
  4. 4.School of Social Work, Rutgers UniversityThe State University of New JerseyNew BrunswickUSA

Personalised recommendations