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The Concept of Isotopic Landscapes: Modern Ecogeochemistry versus Bioarchaeology

Chapter

Abstract

The term “isotopic landscape” or “isoscape” is used to indicate a map depicting isotopic variation in the environment. The spatial distribution of isotopic ratios in environmental samples is an indispensable prerequisite for generating an isotopic landscape yet represents more than simply an assessment of this distribution. An isotopic landscape also includes the fundamental parameters of prediction and modelling, thus providing estimated isotopic signatures at sites for which no values are known. When calibrated, such models are very helpful in assessing the origin of geological and biological materials. Reconstructing the place of origin of primarily non-local archaeological finds is a major topic in bioarchaeology because it gives clues to major driving forces for population development through time such as mobility, migration, and trade. These are fundamental aspects of the past human behaviour. For decades, stable isotope analysis has been the method of choice, but still has its limitations. Bioarchaeological sciences have adopted “isoscapes” mainly as a term, but not as a contextual concept.

This chapter briefly introduces the research substrate of bioarchaeology, which mainly consists of human and animal skeletal finds, provides a concise overview of selected stable isotopic ratios in these remains, and explains their research potential for migration research. State of the art in bioarchaeology, including efforts towards the generation of predictive models, is discussed within the framework of existing isotopic maps and landscapes relevant to bioarchaeology. The persisting challenges in this field of research, which gave rise to research efforts summarized in this book, are also addressed.

Keywords

Stable Isotope Isotopic Ratio International Atomic Energy Agency Isotopic Signature Lead Isotope 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.BiozentrumLudwig-Maximilians-UniversitätMartinsriedGermany
  2. 2.RieskraterMuseum NördlingenNördlingenGermany
  3. 3.Institut für GeographieFriedrich-Alexander-UniversitätErlangenGermany
  4. 4.GeoBio-Center & Paläontologie und GeobiologieLudwig-Maximilians-UniversitätMunichGermany
  5. 5.Department für Geo- und UmweltwissenschaftenLudwig-Maximilians-UniversitätMunichGermany

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