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Epigenetics: Chromatin Organization and Function

  • Genevieve P. Delcuve
  • Dilshad H. Khan
  • Vichithra R. B. Liyanage
  • Sanzida Jahan
  • Mojgan Rastegar
  • Lorrie A. Kirshenbaum
  • James R. DavieEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Cardiac and Vascular Biology book series (Abbreviated title: Card. vasc. biol.)

Abstract

Epigenetics refer to processes such as histone post-translational modifications (PTMs), DNA methylation and RNA that regulate gene activity and expression but are not dependent on alterations in DNA sequence. Herein, we review histone PTMs, histone variants and DNA modifications in the functioning of the nucleosome as an epigenetic signalling module. The majority of the human genome is transcribed, with most of the genome producing non-coding RNA, some of which is a component of the nuclear matrix, a dynamic RNA protein nuclear sub-structure. Non-coding RNA and coding RNA are associated with epigenetic modifiers, architectural chromatin proteins, coactivators and corepressors. The impact of changes in DNA sequence (single nucleotide polymorphisms) on the epigenome is discussed.

Keywords

Histone Acetylation Nuclear Matrix Core Histone Nucleosome Position HDAC Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by grants from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Team Grant (TEC-128094) to JRD, MR and other team members, CIHR (LAK), Research Manitoba (JRD), CancerCare Manitoba Foundation (JRD), Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation (JRD), Canadian Cancer Society (grant 702957 to JRD), Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC Discovery Grant 2016–06035 to MR), Health Sciences Center Foundation (HSCF) to MR, CIHR Catalyst Grant CEN-132383 to MR and JRD, and International Rett Syndrome Foundation (IRSF) to MR. VRBL is a recipient of MHRC-UMGF studentship award. JRD is a Canada Research Chair in Chromatin Dynamics. LAK is a Canada Research Chair in Molecular Cardiology. The authors acknowledge the strong support of the Manitoba Institute of Child Health and CancerCare Manitoba Foundation.

Disclosures

Our work is compliant with ethical standards and I have no conflicts of interest to disclose.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Genevieve P. Delcuve
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dilshad H. Khan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Vichithra R. B. Liyanage
    • 1
  • Sanzida Jahan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mojgan Rastegar
    • 1
    • 2
  • Lorrie A. Kirshenbaum
    • 3
  • James R. Davie
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry and Medical GeneticsUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  2. 2.Manitoba Institute of Cell BiologyUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada
  3. 3.Department of Physiology, The Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, St. Boniface General Hospital Research CentreUniversity of ManitobaWinnipegCanada

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