Advertisement

Anthropology, Conflict, and International Relations

  • Raymond ScupinEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The anthropological perspective is neglected in international relations yet illuminates conflict processes through an evolutionary and cross-cultural comparison. Scupin shows how culture—the central concept developed within anthropology—challenges rational choice models—and illuminates issues such as religious and secular global trends, conflict and terrorism.

Keywords

Foreign Policy Ethnic Identity Collective Memory Ethnographic Research Cultural Anthropologist 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Adams, William. 1998. The Philosophical Roots of Anthropology. Stanford: CSLI Publications.Google Scholar
  2. Adler-Nissen, Rebecca (ed). 2013. Bourdieu in International Relations: Rethinking Key Concepts in IR. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed, Akbar. 1980. Millennium and Charisma among Pathans: A Critical Essay in Social Anthropology. London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  4. ———. 2003. Islam Under Siege: Living Dangerously in a Post-Honor World. Oxford: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  5. ———. 2013. The Thistle and the Drone: How America’s War on Terror Became a Global War on Tribal Islam. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  6. Allen, Mark W. 2014. Hunter-Gatherer Violence and Warfare in Australia. In Violence and Warfare among Hunter-Gatherers, ed. Mark W. Allen, and Terry L. Jones. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  7. Allen, Mark W., and R.L. Jones. 2014. Violence and Warfare among Hunter-Gatherers. Walnut Creek: Left Coast Press.Google Scholar
  8. Anastasio, Thomas J., Kristen Ann Ehrenberger, Patrick Watson, and Wenyi Zhang. 2012. Individual and Collective Memory Consolidation: Analogous Processes on Different Levels. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  9. Arnold, Matthew. 1873. Literature and Dogma. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  10. Asad, Talal. 2003. Formations of the Secular: Christianity, Islam, Modernity. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 2011. Freedom of Speech and Religious Limitations. In Rethinking Secularism, ed. Craig Calhoun, Mark Juergensmeyer, and Jonathan VanAntwerpen, 282–297. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Astuti, Rita, and Maurice Bloch. 2012. Anthropologists as Cognitive Scientists. Topics in Cognitive Sciences 4: 453–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Astuti, Rita, Gregory E. Solomon, and Susan Carey. 2004. Constraints on Conceptual Development: A Case Study of the Acquisition of Folkbiological and Folksociological Knowledge in Madagascar. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69, Serial no. 277, no. 3.Google Scholar
  14. Atran, Scott. 1990. Cognitive Foundations of Natural History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. ———. 2002. In Gods We Trust: The Evolutionary Landscape of Religion. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2003. Genesis of Suicide Terrorism. Science 299(5612): 1534–1539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. ———. 2010. Talking to the Enemy: Faith, Brotherhood, and the (Un)Making of Terrorists. New York: Ecco, HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 2012. God and the Ivory Tower: What We Don’t Understand About Religion Just Might Kill Us. Foreign Policy, August 6, 2012. Accessed March 6, 2013. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2012/08/06/god_and_the_ivory_tower
  19. ———. 2016. The Devoted Actor: Unconditional Commitment and Intractable Conflict across Cultures. Current Anthropology 57(Suppl. 13): S000.Google Scholar
  20. Atran, Scott, and Jeremy Ginges. 2012. Religious and Sacred Imperatives in Human Conflict. Science 336: 855–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Atran, Scott, and Joseph Henrich. 2010. The Evolution of Religion: How Cognitive By-Products, Adaptive Learning Heuristics, Ritual Displays, and Group Competition Generate Deep Commitments to Prosocial Religions. Biological Theory 5(1): 18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Atran, Scott, Hammad Sheikh, and Ángel Gómez. 2014. For Cause and Comrade: Devoted Actors and Willingness to Fight. Cliodynamics 5(1): 41–57.Google Scholar
  23. Ballinger, Pamela. 2012. Europe. In Race and Ethnicity: The United States and the World, 2nd edn, ed. Raymond Scupin, 386–419. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall Press.Google Scholar
  24. Barber, Benjamin. 1996. Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism’s Challenge to Democracy. New York: Ballantine Books.Google Scholar
  25. Barth, Fredrik, Andre Gingrich, Robert Parkin, and Sydel Silverman. 2005. One Discipline, Four Ways: British, German, French, and American Anthropology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Benedict, Ruth. 1934. Patterns of Culture. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 1946. The Chrysanthemum and the Sword. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  28. Berns, Gregory S., and Scott Atran. 2012. The Biology of Cultural Conflict. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences 367: 633–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Berns, Gregory S., Bell Emily, C. Monica Capra, Michael J. Prietula, Sara Moore, Jeremy Gringes, and Scott Atran. 2012. The Price of Your Soul: Neural Evidence for the Non-utilitarian Representation of Sacred Values. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences 367: 754–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bloch, Maurice. 2012. Anthropology and the Cognitive Challenge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Boas, Franz. 1912. Report on Changes in the Bodily Form of Descendants of Immigrants. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  32. ———. 1916. The Mind of Primitive Man. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  33. ———. 1940. Race, Languages and Culture. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  34. Boehm, Christopher. 1993. Egalitarian Behavior and Reverse Dominance Hierarchy. Current Anthropology 34(3): 227–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. ———. 1999. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  36. ———. 2013. The Biocultural Evolution of Conflict Resolution Between Groups. In War, Peace and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views, ed. Douglas P. Fry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Boyer, Pascal. 2001. Religion Explained: The Evolutionary Origins of Religious Thought. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  38. Boyer, Pascal, and James V. Wertsch (ed). 2009. Memory in Mind and Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Brasted, Howard V., and Adeel Khan. 2012. Islam and ‘the Clash of Civilizations’? An Historical Perspective. In Routledge Handbook of Political Islam, ed. Shahram Akbarzadeh. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Breidenbach, Joana, and Pál Nyíri. 2009. Seeing Culture Everywhere: From Genocide to Consumer Habits. Seattle and London: University of Washington Press.Google Scholar
  41. Brown, Donald E. 2012. Ethnicity and Ethnocentrism: Are They Natural? In Race and Ethnicity: The United States and the World, 2nd edn, ed. Raymond Scupin, 84–91. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  42. Bunzel, Cole. 2016. The Kingdom and the Caliphate: Duel of the Islamic States. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.Google Scholar
  43. Burchill, Scott, Andrew Linklater, Jack Donnelly, Terry Nardin, Matthew Paterson, Christian Reus-Smit, and Jacqui True. 2009. Theories of International Relations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  44. Cannell, Fenella. 2010. The Anthropology of Secularism. Annual Review of Anthropology 39: 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Carneiro, Robert. 1970. A Theory of the Origin of the ‘State. Science 169: 733–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Chabal, Patrick, and Jean-Pascal Daloz. 2006. Culture Troubles: Politics and the Interpretation of Meaning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  47. Chagnon, Napoleon. 2000. Manipulating Kinship Rules: A Form of Male Yanomamö Reproductive Competition. In Adaptation and Human Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective, ed. Lee Cronk, Napoleon Chagnon, and William Irons. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  48. Cohen, Ronald, and Elman Service, eds. 1978. Origins of the State: The Anthropology of Political Evolution. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues.Google Scholar
  49. Dames, Christina. 2012. Gender, Ethnicity, Infrastructure, and the Use of Financial Institutions in Kalimantan Barat, Indonesia. PhD dissertation, Anthropology Department, University of Missouri, Columbia.Google Scholar
  50. Degler, Carl. 1991. In Search of Human Nature: The Decline and the Revival of Darwinism in American Social Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Denby, David. 2005. Herder: Culture, Anthropology and the Enlightenment. History of the Human Sciences 18(1): 55–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Durham, William. 1976. Resource Competition and Human Aggression. Part I: A Review of Primitive War. Quarterly Review of Biology 51: 385–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Eickelman, Dale F. 1986. Anthropology and International Relations. In Anthropology and Public Policy: A Dialogue, ed. Walter Goldschmidt, 34–44. Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  54. Eickelman, Dale F., and Jon W. Anderson. 2003. New Media in the Muslim World: The Emerging Public Sphere, 2nd edn. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Eickelman, Dale F., and James Piscatori. 2004. Muslim Politics, 2nd edn. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Ember, Carol. 1978. Myths about Hunter-Gatherers. Ethnology 17: 439–448.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Eriksen, Thomas Hylland. 2010. Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological Perspectives, 3rd edn. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  58. Evans-Pritchard, E.E. 1937. Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic Among the Azande. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Ferguson, R. Brian. 2013. Pinker’s List: Exaggerating Prehistoric War Mortality. In War, Peace and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views, ed. Douglas P. Fry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  60. Fox, Richard, and Barbara King. 2002. Anthropology beyond Culture. Oxford, England: Berg.Google Scholar
  61. Fry, Douglas. 2006. The Human Potential for Peace: An Anthropological Challenge to Assumptions about War and Violence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  62. ———. 2013. War, Peace, and Human Nature: The Convergence of Evolutionary and Cultural Views. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Fukuyama, Francis. 1992. The End of History and the Last Man. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  64. Gat, Azar. 2006. War in Human Civilization. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. ———. 2015. Proving Communal Warfare Among Hunter-Gatherers: The Quasi-Rousseauan Error. Evolutionary Anthropology 24: 111–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Geertz, Clifford. 1963 [1973]. The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in the New States. In The Interpretation of Cultures, ed. Clifford Geertz, 255–310. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  67. ——— (ed). 1973. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  68. ———. 1980. Blurred Genres: The Reconfiguration of Social Thought. The American Scholar 49(2): 165–179.Google Scholar
  69. ——— (ed). 1985. Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretative Anthropology. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  70. ——— (ed). 2000. Available Light: Anthropological Reflections on Philosophical Topics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Gil-White, Francisco J. 1999. How Thick Is Blood? The Plot Thickens…: If Ethnic Actors Are Primordialists, What Remains of the Circumstantialists/Primordialists Controversy? Ethnic and Racial Studies 22: 789–820.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. ———. 2001. Are Ethnic Groups Biological “Species” to the Human Brain? Essentialism in Our Cognition of Some Social Categories. Current Anthropology 42: 515–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gladney, Dru. 1991. Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People’s Republic of China. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  75. ———. 1998a. Making Majorities: Constituting the Nation in Japan, Korea, China, Malaysia, Fiji, Turkey, and the United States. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  76. ———. 1998b. Ethnic Identity in China: The Making of a Muslim Minority Nationality. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace.Google Scholar
  77. ———. 2004. Dislocating China: Muslims, Minorities, and Other Subaltern Subjects. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  78. Glasgow, Joshua, Julia L. Shulman, and Enrique K. Covarrubias. 2009. The Ordinary Conception of Race in the United States and Its Relations to Racial Attitudes: A New Approach. Journal of Cognition and Culture 9: 15–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Goldschmidt, Walter. 1989. Inducement to Military Participation in Tribal Societies. In The Anthropology of War and Peace: Perspectives on the Nuclear Age, ed. Paul R. Turner, and David Pitt, 15–29. Granby, MA: Bergin and Garvey.Google Scholar
  80. Harris, Marvin. 1985. The Sacred Cow and the Abominable Pig: Riddles of Food and Culture. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  81. Haykel, Bernard, and Cole Bunzel. 2015. The New Caliphate. February 12, 2015. http://m.jordantimes.com/article/a-new-caliphate
  82. Henrich, Joseph, et al. 2005. “Economic Man” in Cross-cultural Perspective: Behavioral Experiments in 15 Small-Scale Societies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28(6): 795–855.Google Scholar
  83. Herder, Johann Gottfried. (1800) 1967. Outlines of a Philosophy of the History of Man. Trans. T. O. Churchill. London: Luke Hansard.Google Scholar
  84. Hirschfeld, Lawrence. 1996. Race in the Making: Cognition, Culture and the Child’s Construction of Humankind. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  85. James, Patrick (ed). 2011. Religion, Identity, and Global Governance: Ideas, Evidence, and Practice. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  86. Jones, Doug. 2009. Looks and Living Kinds: Varieties of Racial Cognition in Bahia, Brazil. Journal of Cognition and Culture 9: 247–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kahneman, Daniel. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Strauss and Giroux.Google Scholar
  88. Kahneman, Daniel, and Amos Tversky. 1982. Judgment Under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. In Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases, ed. Daniel Kahneman, and Amos Tversky, 3–22. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kanovsky, Martin. 2007. Essentialism and Folksociology: Ethnicity Again. Journal of Cognition and Culture 7: 241–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Keegan, John. 1994. A History of Warfare. New York: Vintage Press.Google Scholar
  91. Keeley, Lawrence H. 1996. War before Civilization. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Kelly, Raymond. 2003. Warless Societies and the Origin of War. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  93. Knauft, Bruce. 1988. Reply to Betzig, Laura. On Reconsidering Violence in Simple Human Societies. Current Anthropology 29(4): 629–633.Google Scholar
  94. Kohler, Tim, Scott G. Ortman, Katie E. Grundtish, Carly M. Fitzpatrick, and Sarah M. Cole. 2014. The Better Angels of Their Nature: Declining Violence Through Time among Prehistoric Farmers of the Pueblo Southwest. American Antiquity 79(3): 444–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kuper, Adam. 2000. Culture: The Anthropologist’s Account. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  96. LeBlanc, Steven, and Katherine E. Register. 2003. Constant Battles: The Myth of the Peaceful, Noble Savage. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  97. Lee, Richard B. 1979. The !Kung San: Men, Women, and Work in a Foraging Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  98. Lende, Daniel L., and Greg Downey. 2012. The Encultured Brain: An Introduction to Neuroanthropology. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  99. Lewis, Bernard. 1990. The Roots of Muslim Rage. The Atlantic Monthly, September.Google Scholar
  100. Lewis, Herbert. 1999. The Misrepresentation of Anthropology and Its Consequences. American Anthropologist 100(3): 716–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. ———. 2001. Boas, Science, and Anthropology. Current Anthropology 42(3): 381–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Mahalingam, Rao. 2003. Essentialism, Culture, and Power: Representations of Social Class. Journal of Social Issues 59: 733–749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Mahmood, Saba. 2010. Can Secularism Be Other-wise. In The Varieties of Secularism, ed. Michael Warner, Jonathan VanAntwerpen, and Craig Calhoun. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1922. Argonauts of the Western Pacific: An Account of Native Enterprise and Adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guine. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  105. Mathews, Gordon, Gustavo Lins Ribeiro, and Carlos Alba Vega (ed). 2012. Globalization from Below: The World’s Other Economy. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  106. McCargo, Duncan. 2007. Rethinking Thailand’s Southern Violence. Singapore: NUS Press.Google Scholar
  107. ———. 2008. Tearing Apart the Land: Islam and Legitimacy in Southern Thailand. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  108. ———. 2009. Thai Buddhism, Thai Buddhists and the Southern Conflict. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 40(1): 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Mead, Margaret. 1928. Coming of Age in Samoa. New York: Morrow.Google Scholar
  110. ———. 1935. Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. New York: Mentor.Google Scholar
  111. Morris, Ian. 2010. Why the West Rules—For Now: The Patterns of History, and What They Reveal about the Future. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  112. ———. 2012. The Measure of Civilization: How Social Development Decides the Fate of Nations. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  113. ———. 2014. War, What is it Good for? New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  114. Muller, Jerry Z. 2008. Us and Them: The Enduring Power of Ethnic Nationalism. Foreign Affairs (March/April 2008): 18–35.Google Scholar
  115. Munson, Henry. 2008. Fundamentalisms’ Compared. Religion Compass 2 10 (1111/): 1–18.Google Scholar
  116. Otterbein, Keith. 1974. The Anthropology of War. In Handbook of Social and Cultural Anthropology, ed. John Honigmann. Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  117. ———. 1994. Feuding and Warfare: Selected Works of Keith F. Otterbein. Langhorne, PA: Gordon and Breach.Google Scholar
  118. Pinker, Steven. 2011. The Better Angels of Our Nature: Why Violence Has Declined. New York: Viking, Penguin Group.Google Scholar
  119. Roscoe, Paul B. 2013. War, Collective Action, and the “Evolution” of Human Polities. In Cooperation & Collective Action: Archaeological Perspectives, ed. David M. Carbello. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  120. Rosen, Stephen. 2005. War and Human Nature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  121. Ross, Norbert. 2004. Culture and Cognition: Implications for Theory and Method. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  122. Scupin, Raymond. 1986. Thailand as a Plural Society: Ethnic Interaction in a Buddhist Kingdom. Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 2(3): 115–140.Google Scholar
  123. ———. 1987. Interpreting Islamic Movements in Thailand. Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 3(2–3): 78–93.Google Scholar
  124. ———. 1998. Muslim Accommodation in Thai Society. Journal of Islamic Studies (Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies) 9(2): 229–258.Google Scholar
  125. ———. 2003. The Anthropology of Islam as Applied Anthropology. Reviews in Anthropology 32: 141–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. ———. 2008. Islam. In Religion and Culture: An Anthropological Focus, 2nd edn, ed. Raymond Scupin, 430–454. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  127. ———. 2012. Asia. In Race and Ethnicity: The United States and the World, 2nd edn, ed. Raymond Scupin, 363–385. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall Press.Google Scholar
  128. ———. 2013. South Thailand: Politics, Identity, and Culture. Journal of Asian Studies 72(2): 423–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Shah, Timothy Samuel, Alfred Stepan, and Monica Duffy Toft (ed). 2012. Rethinking Religion and World Affairs. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  130. Shils, Edward. 1957. Primordial, Personal, Sacred and Civil Ties. British Journal of Sociology 7: 113–145.Google Scholar
  131. Sperber, Dan. 1996. Explaining Culture: A Naturalistic Approach. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  132. Sperber, Dan, and Lawrence Hirschfeld. 2004. The Cognitive Foundations of Cultural Stability and Diversity. Trends in Cognitive Science 8(1): 40–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tambiah, Stanley. 1989. Ethnic Conflict in the World Today. American Ethnologist 16(2): 335–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall. 1959. The Harmless People. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc..Google Scholar
  135. Tönnies, Ferdinand. 1963. Community and Society (Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  136. Tylor, Edward B. 1871. Primitive Cultures. London: Torchbooks.Google Scholar
  137. ———. 1881. Anthropology: An Introduction to the Study of Man and Civilization. New York: Appleton.Google Scholar
  138. Walker, Philip L. 2001. A Bioarchaeological Perspective on the History of Violence. Annual Review of Anthropology 30: 573–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Walker, Robert S., and Drew H. Bailey. 2013. Body Counts in Lowland South American Violence. Evolution and Human Behavior 34(1): 29–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Whitehouse, Marvey, and Luther H. Martin. 2004. Theorizing Religions Past: Archaeology, History, and Cognition. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.Google Scholar
  141. Wolf, Eric R. 1987. Cycles of Violence: The Anthropology of War and Peace. In Waymarks: The Notre Dame Inaugural Lectures in Anthropology, ed. Kenneth Moor, 127–151. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  142. Wolfe, Alvin W. 2006. Supranational Networks: States and Firms. Peace and Conflict Studies 13(1): 68–80.Google Scholar
  143. ———. 2011. Anthropologist View of Social Network Analysis and Data Mining. Social Network Analysis and Data Mining 1(1): 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Zammito, John H. 2002. Kant, Herder, and the Birth of Anthropology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Anthropology and International StudiesLindenwood UniversitySt. Charles, MOUSA

Personalised recommendations