Advertisement

Introduction

Return Migration, Development and Peace-Building
Chapter
Part of the Migration, Diasporas and Citizenship book series (MDC)

Abstract

Van Houte discusses why and how in the post-Cold War era, return migrants from European countries returning to “post-conflict” countries have become seen as agents of change who can contribute to development and peace-building. But policies to promote this next are also designed to manage migration and defend domestic welfare and security. This chapter highlights the tensions, contradictions and questions that remain with regard to (1) the heterogeneity of the post-return experience and the complex meanings of and motivations for return, (2) the hierarchization of returnees’ mobility and immobility and (3) returnees’ room to manoeuvre in their negotiation between spaces of belonging, in order to (4) interrogate the expectations on which the linkages between return migration, development and peace-building are based.

Keywords

Host Country Asylum Seeker Return Migration Undocumented Migrant Multiple Space 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Ahmed, Sara. 1999. Home and Away. International Journal of Cultural Studies 2(3): 329–347. doi: 10.1177/136787799900200303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Ali, Nadje, Richard Black, and Khalid Koser. 2001. Refugees and Transnationalism: The Experience of Bosnians and Eritreans in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 27(4): 615–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amelina, Anna. 2010. Searching for an Appropriate Research Strategy on Transnational Migration: The Logic of Multi-Sited Research and the Advantage of the Cultural Interferences Approach. Forum: Qualitative Social Research 11(1).Google Scholar
  4. Ammassari, Savina. 2004. From Nation-Building to Entrepreneurship: The Impact of Élite Return Migrants in Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana. Population, Space and Place 10(2): 133–154. doi: 10.1002/psp.319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Appadurai, Arjun. 2010. How Histories Make Geographies. Transcultural Studies 1: 4–13. doi: 10.11588/ts.2010.1.6129.Google Scholar
  6. Bailey, Olga Guedes. 2012. Migrant African Women: Tales of Agency and Belonging. Ethnic and Racial Studies 35(5): 850–867. doi: 10.1080/01419870.2011.628037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bakewell, Oliver. 2008. ‘Keeping Them in Their Place’: The Ambivalent Relationship Between Development and Migration in Africa. Third World Quarterly 29(7): 1341–1358. doi: 10.1080/01436590802386492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. ———. 2010. Some Reflections on Structure and Agency in Migration Theory. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36(10): 1689–1708. doi: 10.1080/1369183x.2010.489382.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Basch, Linda G., Nina Glick Schiller, and Cristina Szanton Blanc. 1994. Nations Unbound: Transnational Projects, Postcolonial Predicaments, and Deterritorialized Nation-States. Langhorne: Gordon and Breach.Google Scholar
  10. Bauman, Zygmunt. 1998. Globalization: The Human Consequences. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bhugra, Dinesh, and Matthew A. Becker. 2005. Migration, Cultural Bereavement and Cultural Identity. World Psychiatry 4(1): 18–24.Google Scholar
  12. Black, Richard. 2001. Return and Reconstruction in Bosnia-Herzegovina: Missing Link, or Mistaken Priority? SAIS Review XXI(2): 177–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Black, Richard, and Saskia Gent. 2006. Sustainable Return in Post-conflict Contexts. International Migration 44(3): 15–38. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435. 2006.00370.x.
  14. Black, Richard, and Khalid Koser, eds. 1999. The End of the Refugee Cycle?: Refugee Repatriation and Reconstruction. Vol. 4, Forced Migration. New York and Oxford: Berghahn.Google Scholar
  15. Blitz, Brad K., Rosemary Sales, and Lisa Marzano. 2005. Non-Voluntary Return? The Politics of Return to Afghanistan. Political Studies 53(1): 182–200. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.2005.00523.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bloch, Alice. 2008. Zimbabweans in Britain: Transnational Activities and Capabilities. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 34(2): 287–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Braakman, Marije, and Angela Schlenkhoff. 2007. Between Two Worlds: Feelings of Belonging While in Exile and the Question of Return. Asien 104(3): 9–22.Google Scholar
  18. Brees, Inge. 2010. Refugees and Transnationalism on the Thai–Burmese Border. Global Networks 10(2): 282–299. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0374.2010.00286.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Buitelaar, Marjo. 2006. ‘I Am the Ultimate Challenge’. Accounts of Intersectionality in the Life-Story of a Well-Known Daughter of Moroccan Migrant Workers in the Netherlands. European Journal of Women’s Studies 13(3): 259–276. doi: 10.1177/1350506806065756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carling, Jørgen. 2002. Migration in the Age of Involuntary Immobility: Theoretical Reflections and Cape Verdean Experiences. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 28(1): 5–42. doi: 10.1080/13691830120103912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. ———. 2004. Emigration, Return and Development in Cape Verde: The Impact of Closing Borders. Population, Space and Place 10(2): 113–132. doi: 10.1002/psp.322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cassarino, Jean-Pierre. 2004. Theorising Return Migration: The Conceptual Approach to Return Migrants Revisited. International Journal on Multicultural Societies (IJMS) 6(2): 253–279.Google Scholar
  23. ———., eds. 2014. Reintegration and Development. Florence: European University Institute and Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies.Google Scholar
  24. Castles, Stephen. 2003. Towards a Sociology of Forced Migration and Social Transformation. Sociology 37(1): 13–34. doi: 10.1177/0038038503037001384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. ———. 2005. Nation and Empire: Hierarchies of Citizenship in the New Global Order. International Politics 42(2): 203–224. doi: 10.1057/palgrave.ip.8800107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. ———. 2007. Twenty-First-Century Migration as a Challenge to Sociology. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 33(3): 351–371. doi: 10.1080/13691830701234491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Castles, Stephen, Hein De Haas, and Mark J. Miller. 2014. The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. 5th ed. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Castles, Stephen, and Mark J. Miller. 2009. The Age of Migration: International Population Movements in the Modern World. 4th ed. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  29. Cerase, Francesco P. 1974. Expectations and Reality: A Case Study of Return Migration from the United States to Southern Italy. International Migration Review 8(2): 245–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chan, Yuk Wah, and Thi Le Thu Tran. 2011. Recycling Migration and Changing Nationalisms: The Vietnamese Return Diaspora and Reconstruction of Vietnamese Nationhood. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 37(7): 1101–1117. doi: 10.1080/1369183x.2011.572486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chimni, B.S. 2000. Globalization, Humanitarianism and the Erosion of Refugee Protection. Journal of Refugee Studies 13(3): 243–263. doi: 10.1093/jrs/13.3.243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chimni, Bupinder S. 1999. From Resettlement to Involuntary Repatriation: Towards a Critical History of Durable Solutions to Refugee Problems. In New Issues in Refugee Research. Geneva: UNCHR.Google Scholar
  33. Christou, Anastasia. 2006. Deciphering Diaspora—Translating Transnationalism: Family Dynamics, Identity Constructions and the Legacy of ‘Home’ in Second-Generation Greek-American Return Migration. Ethnic and Racial Studies 29(6): 1040–1056. doi: 10.1080/01419870600960297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. D’onofrio, Lisa. 2004. Welcome Home? Minority Return in South-Eastern Republika Srspka. In Sussex Migration Working Paper. Brighton: University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  35. De Haas, Hein. 2005. International Migration, Remittances and Development: Myths and Facts. Third World Quarterly 26(8): 1269–1284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. ———. 2006. Engaging Diasporas: How Governments and Development Agencies Can Support Diaspora Involvement in the Development of Origin Countries. Oxford: International Migration Institute.Google Scholar
  37. ———. 2010. Migration and Development: A Theoretical Perspective. International Migration Review 44(1): 227–264. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00804.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dolan, Chris. 1999. Repatriation from South Africa to Mozambique–Undermining Durable Solutions? In The End of the Refugee Cycle? Refugee Repatriation and Reconstruction, ed. Richard Black and Khalid Koser, 85–108. New York and Oxford: Berghahn.Google Scholar
  39. Duffield, Mark. 2006. Racism, Migration and Development: the Foundations of Planetary Order. Progress in Development Studies 6(1): 68–79. doi: 10.1191/1464993406ps128oa.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Eastmond, Marita. 2006. Transnational Returns and Reconstruction in Post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina. International Migration 44(3): 141–166. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-2435.2006.00375.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Erdal, Marta Bivand. 2012. ‘A Place to Stay in Pakistan’: Why Migrants Build Houses in Their Country of Origin. Population, Space and Place 18(5): 629–641. doi: 10.1002/psp.1694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Eriksen, Thomas Hylland. 1995. Small Places, Large Issues, Anthropology, Culture and Society. London and New York: Pluto.Google Scholar
  43. Faist, Thomas. 2008. Migrants as Transnational Development Agents: An Inquiry into the Newest Round of the Migration–Development Nexus. Population, Space and Place 14(1): 21–42. doi: 10.1002/psp.471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Findlay, Allan M., and F.L.N. Li. 1997. An Auto-Biographical Approach to Understanding Migration: The Case of Hong Kong Emigrants. Area 29(1): 34–44. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.1997.tb00005.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Frouws, Bram, and Ton Grimmius. 2012. Migratie en Ontwikkeling. In Beleidsevaluatie van het Nederlandse Migratie- en Ontwikkelingsbeleid sinds 2008. Eindrapport: Research voor Beleid and Maastricht University.Google Scholar
  46. Gardner, Katy, and Ralph Grillo. 2002. Transnational Households and Ritual: An Overview. Global Networks 2(3): 179–190. doi: 10.1111/1471-0374.00035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. GCIM. 2005. Migration in an Interconnected World: New Directions for Action. Geneva: Global Commission on International Migration.Google Scholar
  48. Ghanem, Tania. 2003. When Forced Migrants Return ‘Home’: The Psychological Difficulties Returnees Encounter in the Reintegration Process. In RSC Working Paper. Oxford: University of Oxford.Google Scholar
  49. Ghorashi, Halleh. 2001. Ways to Survive, Battles to Win: Iranian Women Exiles in the Netherlands and the US. Nijmegen: Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen.Google Scholar
  50. ———. 2003. Multiple Identities Between Continuity and Change. The Narratives of Iranian Women in Exile. Focaal-European Journal of Anthropology 42: 63–75.Google Scholar
  51. Gmelch, George. 1980. Return Migration. Annual Review of Anthropology 9: 135–159. doi: 10.2307/2155732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Granovetter, Mark. 1985. Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology 91(3): 481–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guarnizo, Luis Eduardo, Alejandro Portes, and William Haller. 2003. Assimilation and Transnationalism: Determinants of Transnational Political Action among Contemporary Migrants. American Journal of Sociology 108(6): 1211–1248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hall, Jonathan, and Roland Kostić. 2009. Does Integration Encourage Reconciliatory Attitudes among Diasporas? In Global Migration and Transnational Politics Working Paper. Fairfax: Center for Global Studies, George Mason University.Google Scholar
  55. Hammond, Laura. 1999. Examining the Discourse of Repatriation: Towards a More Proactive Theory of Return Migration. In The End of the Refugee Cycle? Refugee Repatriation and Reconstruction, ed. Richard Black and Khalid Koser, 227–244. New York and Oxford: Berghahn.Google Scholar
  56. Hess, Martin. 2004. ‘Spatial’ Relationships? Towards a Reconceptualization of Embeddedness. Progress in Human Geography 28(2): 165–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hitlin, Steven, and Glen H. Elder. 2007. Time, Self, and the Curiously Abstract Concept of Agency. Sociological Theory 25(2): 170–191. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9558.2007.00303.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hyndman, Jennifer. 2012. The Geopolitics of Migration and Mobility. Geopolitics 17(2): 243–255. doi: 10.1080/14650045.2011.569321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. ICMPD and ECDPM. 2013. Migration and Development Policies and Practices. A Mapping Study of Eleven European Countries and the European Commission. Vienna and Maastricht: ICMPD and ECDPM.Google Scholar
  60. Jain, Sonali. 2012. For Love and Money: Second-Generation Indian-Americans ‘Return’ to India. Ethnic and Racial Studies 36(5): 896–914. doi: 10.1080/01419870.2011.641576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Jones, Richard C. 2011. The Local Economic Imprint of Return Migrants in Bolivia. Population, Space and Place 17(5): 435–453. doi: 10.1002/psp.626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. King, Russell. 1978. Return Migration: A Neglected Aspect of Population Geography. Area 10(3): 175–182. doi: 10.2307/20001343.Google Scholar
  63. ———. 2000. Generalizations from the History of Return Migration. In Return Migration: Journey of Hope or Despair, ed. B. Ghosh, 7–55. Geneva: IOM and UNHCR.Google Scholar
  64. ———. 2012. Geography and Migration Studies: Retrospect and Prospect. Population, Space and Place 18(2): 134–153. doi: 10.1002/psp.685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. King, Russell, and Anastasia Christou. 2010. Cultural Geographies of Counter-Diasporic Migration: Perspectives from the Study of Second-Generation ‘Returnees’ to Greece. Population, Space and Place 16(2): 103–119. doi: 10.1002/psp.543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. ———. 2011. Of Counter-Diaspora and Reverse Transnationalism: Return Mobilities to and from the Ancestral Homeland. Mobilities 6(4): 451–466. doi: 10.1080/17450101.2011.603941.Google Scholar
  67. Kloosterman, Robert C., Joanne Van Der Leun, and Jan Rath. 1999. Mixed Embeddedness: (In) Formal Economic Activities and Immigrant Businesses in the Netherlands. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research 23(2): 252–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kloosterman, Robert C. 2010. Matching Opportunities with Resources: A Framework for Analysing (Migrant) Entrepreneurship from a Mixed Embeddedness Perspective. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development 22(1): 25–45. doi: 10.1080/08985620903220488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Koser, Khalid, and Richard Black. 1999. The End of the Refugee Cycle? In The End of the Refugee Cycle? Refugee Repatriation and Reconstruction, ed. Richard Black and Khalid Koser, 2–17. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
  70. Koser, Khalid, and Nicholas Van Hear. 2003. Asylum Migration and Implications for Countries of Origin. WIDER Discussion Paper 2003/20, http://www.unu.edu/hq/library/Collection/PDF_files/WIDER/WIDERdp2003.20.pdf.
  71. Levitt, Peggy, Kristen Lucken, and Melissa Barnett. 2011. Beyond Home and Return: Negotiating Religious Identity across Time and Space through the Prism of the American Experience. Mobilities 6(4): 467–482. doi: 10.1080/17450101.2011.603942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Levitt, Peggy, and Nina Glick Schiller. 2004. Conceptualizing Simultaneity: A Transnational Social Field Perspective on Society. International Migration Review 38(3): 1002–1039. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2004.tb00227.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ley, David. 2004. Transnational Spaces and Everyday Lives. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 29(2): 151–164. doi: 10.1111/j.0020-2754.2004.00122.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Li, F.L.N., A.J. Jowett, Allan M. Findlay, and Ronald Skeldon. 1995. Discourse on Migration and Ethnic Identity: Interviews with Professionals in Hong Kong. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 20(3): 342–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Long, Lynellyn D., and Ellen Oxfeld. 2004a. Introduction. In Coming Home? Refugees, Migrants, and Those Who Stayed Behind, ed. Lynellyn D. Long and Ellen Oxfeld, 1–15. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  76. ———., eds. 2004b. Coming Home? Refugees, Migrants, and Those Who Stayed Behind. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  77. Lubkemann, Stephen C. 2008. Involuntary Immobility: On a Theoretical Invisibility in Forced Migration Studies. Journal of Refugee Studies 21(4): 454–475. doi: 10.1093/jrs/fen043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Malkki, Liisa. 1992. National Geographic: The Rooting of Peoples and the Territorialization of National Identity Among Scholars and Refugees. Cultural Anthropology 7(1): 24–44. doi: 10.1525/can.1992.7.1.02a00030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Massey, Doreen. 1993. Power-Geometry and a Progressive Sense of Place. In Mapping the Futures: Local Cultures, Global Change, ed. John Bird, Barry Curtis, Tim Putnam, and Lisa Tickner, 59–69. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  80. Massey, Douglas S., Joaquin Arango, Graeme Hugo, Ali Kouaouci, Adela Pellegrino, and J. Edward Taylor. 1993. Theories of International Migration: A Review and Appraisal. Population and Development Review 19(3): 431–466. doi: 10.2307/2938462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mazzucato, Valentina. 2008. The Double Engagement: Transnationalism and Integration. Ghanaian Migrants’ Lives Between Ghana and The Netherlands. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 34(2): 199–216. doi: 10.1080/13691830701823871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mazzucato, Valentina, and Djamila Schans. 2011. Transnational Families and the Well-Being of Children: Conceptual and Methodological Challenges. Journal of Marriage and Family 73(4): 704–712. doi: 10.1111/j.1741-3737.2011.00840.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Meeus, Bruno. 2012. How to ‘Catch’ Floating Populations? Research and the Fixing of Migration in Space and Time. Ethnic and Racial Studies 35(10): 1775–1793. doi: 10.1080/01419870.2012.659272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mohamoud, Abdullah A. 2006. African Diaspora and Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Africa. In DIIS Brief. Copenhagen: Danish Institute for International Studies.Google Scholar
  85. Mommers, Christian, and Evi Velthuis. 2010. Leaving The Netherlands. Twenty Years of Voluntary Return Policy in the Netherlands (1989–2009). The Hague: International Organization for Migration.Google Scholar
  86. Monsutti, Alessandro. 2008. Afghan Migratory Strategies and the Three Solutions to the Refugee Problem. Refugee Survey Quarterly 27(1): 58–73. doi: 10.1093/rsq/hdn007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Nagel, Caroline R., and Lynn A. Staeheli. 2004. Citizenship, Identity and Transnational Migration: Arab Immigrants to the United States. Space and Polity 8(1): 3–23. doi: 10.1080/13562570410001678860.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Noll, Gregor. 1999. Rejected Asylum Seekers: The Problem of Return. International Migration 37(1): 267–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Oeppen, Ceri. 2009. A Stranger at Home: Integration, Transnationalism and the Afghan Elite. Sussex: University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  90. Omata, Naohiko. 2013. The Complexity of Refugees’ Return Decision-Making in a Protracted Exile: Beyond the Home-Coming Model and Durable Solutions. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(8): 1281–1297. doi: 10.1080/1369183X.2013.778149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Özerdem, Alpaslan, and Abdul Hai Sofizada. 2006. Sustainable Reintegration to Returning Refugees in Post-Taliban Afghanistan: Land-Related Challenges. Conflict, Security & Development 6(1): 75–100. doi: 10.1080/14678800600590678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pedersen, Marianne Holm. 2003. Between Homes: Post-war Return, Emplacement and the Negotiation of Belonging in Lebanon. In New Issues in Refugee Research. Geneva: UNHCR.Google Scholar
  93. Portes, Alejandro. 1999. Conclusion: Towards a New World—The Origins and Effects of Transnational Activities. Ethnic and Racial Studies 22(2): 463–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Portes, Alejandro, and Julia Sensenbrenner. 1993. Embeddedness and Immigration: Notes on the Social Determinants of Economic Action. American Journal of Sociology 98(6): 1320–1350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Potter, Robert B. 2005. ‘Young, Gifted and Back’: Second-generation Transnational Return Migrants to the Caribbean. Progress in Development Studies 5(3): 213–236. doi: 10.1191/1464993405ps114oa.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Raghuram, Parvati. 2009. Which Migration, What Development? Unsettling the Edifice of Migration and Development. Population, Space and Place 15(2): 103–117. doi: 10.1002/psp.536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Ruben, Ruerd, Marieke Van Houte, and Tine Davids. 2009. What Determines the Embeddedness of Forced-Return Migrants? Rethinking the Role of Pre- and Post-Return Assistance. International Migration Review 43(4): 908–937. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2009.00789.x.Google Scholar
  98. Schuster, Liza. 2011. Turning Refugees into ‘Illegal Migrants’: Afghan Asylum Seekers in Europe. Ethnic and Racial Studies 34(8): 1392–1407. doi: 10.1080/01419870.2010.535550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Sewell, William H. Jr. 1992. A Theory of Structure: Duality, Agency, and Transformation. American Journal of Sociology 98(1): 1–29. doi: 10.2307/2781191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Sherrell, Kathy, and Jennifer Hyndman. 2006. Global Minds, Local Bodies: Kosovar Transnational Connections Beyond British Columbia. Refuge: Canada’s Journal on Refugees 23(1): 16–26.Google Scholar
  101. Sinatti, Giulia. 2011. ‘Mobile Transmigrants’ or ‘Unsettled Returnees’? Myth of Return and Permanent Resettlement Among Senegalese Migrants. Population, Space and Place 17(2): 153–166. doi: 10.1002/psp.608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Skeldon, Ronald. 2008. International Migration as a Tool in Development Policy: A Passing Phase? Population and Development Review 34(1): 1–18. doi: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2008.00203.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Smith, Michael Peter, and Luis Eduardo Guarnizo, eds. 1998. Transnationalism from Below. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  104. Snel, Erik, Godfried Engbersen, and Arjen Leerkes. 2006. Transnational Involvement and Social Integration. Global Networks 6(3): 285–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sørensen, Ninna Nyberg, Nicholas Van Hear, and Poul Engberg-Pedersen. 2002. The Migration-Development Nexus: Evidence and Policy Options. International Migration 40(5): 49–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Stein, Barry N., and Frederick C. Cuny. 1994. Refugee Repatriation During Conflict: Protection and Post-Return Assistance. Development in Practice 4(3): 173–187. doi: 10.1080/096145249100077811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Stigter, Elca. 2006. Afghan Migratory Strategies—An Assesment of Repatriation and Sustainable Return in Response to the Convention Plus. Refugee Survey Quarterly 25(2): 109–122. doi: 10.1093/rsq/hdi0129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tsuda, Takeyuki. 1999. The Permanence of ‘Temporary’ Migration: The ‘Structural Embeddedness’ of Japanese-Brazilian Immigrant Workers in Japan. The Journal of Asian Studies 58(3): 687–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. ———. 2004. Migration and Alienation: Japanese-Brazilian Return Migrants and the Search for Homeland Abroad. Chicago: University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  110. Turton, David, and Peter Marsden. 2002. Taking Refugees for a Ride? The Politics of Refugee Return to Afghanistan. In Issues Paper Series. Islamabad: The Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit (AREU).Google Scholar
  111. UNHCR. 1997. The State of The World’s Refugees 1997: A Humanitarian Agenda. Geneva: UNHCR.Google Scholar
  112. ———. 2009. UNHCR Elegibility Guidelines for Assessing the International Protection Needs of Asylum-Seekers from Afghanistan.Google Scholar
  113. Van Houte, Marieke, and Tine Davids. 2008. Development and Return Migration: from Policy Panacea to Migrant Perspective Sustainability. Third World Quarterly 29(7): 1411–1429. doi: 10.1080/01436590802386658.Google Scholar
  114. Van Liempt, Ilse. 2011. Young Dutch Somalis in the UK: Citizenship, Identities and Belonging in a Transnational Triangle. Mobilities 6(4): 569–583. doi: 10.1080/17450101.2011.603948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Vertovec, Steven. 1999. Conceiving and Researching Transnationalism. Ethnic and Racial Studies 22(2): 447–462. doi: 10.1080/014198799329558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. ———. 2001. Transnationalism and Identity. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 27(4): 573–582. doi: 10.1080/13691830120090386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wijers, Gea. 2013. Navigating a River by Its Bends. A Comparison of Cambodian Returnees’ Contributions to the Transformation of Cambodia, Faculty of Social Sciences, Free University, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  118. Wimmer, Andreas, and Nina Glick Schiller. 2003. Methodological Nationalism, the Social Sciences, and the Study of Migration: An Essay in Historical Epistemology. International Migration Review 37(3): 576–610. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-7379.2003.tb00151.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wissink, Marieke, Franck Düvell, and Anouka van Eerdewijk. 2013. Dynamic Migration Intentions and the Impact of Socio-Institutional Environments: A Transit Migration Hub in Turkey. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39(7): 1087–1105. doi: 10.1080/1369183x.2013.778026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zetter, Roger. 1999. Reconceptualizing the Myth of Return: Contuity and Transition Amongst the Greek-Cypriot Refugees of 1974. Journal of Refugee Studies 12(1): 1–22. doi: 10.1093/jrs/12.1.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Zimmermann, Susan. 2012. Understanding Repatriation: Refugee Perspectives on the Importance of Safety, Reintegration, and Hope. Population, Space and Place 18(1): 45–57. doi: 10.1002/psp.647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zunzer, Wolfram. 2004. Diaspora Communities and Civil Conflict Transformation. In Berghof Occasional Paper. Berlin: Berghof Research Centre for Constructive Conflict Management.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.International Migration Institute Department of International DevelopmentUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations