Peripheral Inflammation and Demyelinating Diseases

  • Verónica Murta
  • Carina FerrariEmail author
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 949)


In recent decades, several neurodegenerative diseases have been shown to be exacerbated by systemic inflammatory processes. There is a wide range of literature that demonstrates a clear but complex relationship between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immunological system, both under naïve or pathological conditions. In diseased brains, peripheral inflammation can transform “primed” microglia into an “active” state, which can trigger stronger pathological responses. Demyelinating diseases are a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by inflammatory lesions associated with demyelination, which in turn induces axonal damage, neurodegeneration, and progressive loss of function. Among them, the most important are multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO). In this review, we will analyze the effect of specific peripheral inflammatory stimuli in the progression of demyelinating diseases and discuss their animal models. In most cases, peripheral immune stimuli are exacerbating.


Demyelinating diseases Systemic inflammation Microglia Multiple sclerosis Neuromyelitis optica Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis 

Abbreviations and Acronyms




Blood–brain barrier


Chemokine CC motif ligand 2


Chemokine CC motif receptor 2


Cluster of differentiation


Central nervous system


Cerebrospinal fluid


CXC motif chemokine receptor type 2


Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis










Immunoglobulin G




Inducible nitric oxide synthase


Major histocompatibility complex


Multiple sclerosis


Neuromyelitis optica




Primary progressive MS


Relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis


Serum glucocorticoid kinase 1


Secondary progressive multiple sclerosis


Transforming growth factor beta


T helper


Toll-like receptors


Tumor necrosis factor α


White blood cells



Carina C. Ferrari and Verónica Murta are members of the Research Career of the National Council of Scientific and Technological Research (CONICET), Argentina. CF is supported by CONICET (PIP 2012-2014, 11220110100560) and National Agency of Science and Technology of Argentina (ANPCyT) (PICT 2012-2014).


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratorio de Neuropatología Molecular, Instituto de Biología Celular y NeurocienciasUniversidad de Buenos AiresBuenos AiresArgentina
  2. 2.Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Medicina ExperimentalInstituto Universitario del Hospital ItalianoBuenos AiresArgentina

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