Advertisement

Evaluation of Non-visual Zooming Operations on Touchscreen Devices

  • Hariprasath Palani
  • Uro Giudice
  • Nicholas A. GiudiceEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9738)

Abstract

The limited screen real estate of touchscreen devices necessitates the use of zooming operations for accessing graphical information such as maps. While these operations are intuitive for sighted individuals, they are difficult to perform for blind and visually-impaired (BVI) people using non-visual sensing with touchscreen-based interfaces. We address this vexing design issue by investigating the perceptual and cognitive factors involved in: (1) non-visual zooming operations, and (2) integrating information across multiple zoom levels to build a global cognitive map. A behavioral study compared map learning performance between two zoom-mode conditions and a no-zoom control. Results revealed that non-visual zooming operations are not only possible, but actually lead to improved efficiency of touch-based non-visual learning. Findings provide compelling evidence for the efficacy of incorporating zooming operations on touchscreen-based non-visual interfaces and have significant broader impacts for improving the accessibility of a wide range of graphical information for BVI people.

Keywords

Interaction design Assistive technology Haptic information access Haptic interaction Multimodal interface 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We acknowledge support from NSF grants CHS-1425337 and CDI-1028895 on this project.1

References

  1. 1.
    Eriksson, Y.: Tactile Pictures. Pictorial representations for the blind, pp. 1784–1940 (1998)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Perkins, M.: Perkins Museum (2015). http://www.perkinsmuseum.org/. Accessed 01 Jan 2015
  3. 3.
    O’Modhrain, S., Giudice, N.A., Gardner, J.A., Legge, G.E.: Designing media for visually-impaired users of refreshable touch displays: possibilities and pitfalls. Trans. Haptics 8(3), 248–257 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rowell, J., Ungar, S.: The world of touch: an international survey of tactile maps. Part 1: production. Br. J. Vis. Impair. 21(3), 98–104 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rowell, J., Ungar, S.: The world of touch: an international survey of tactile maps. Part 2: design. Br. J. Vis. Impair. 21(3), 105–110 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Giudice, N.A., Legge, G.E.: Blind navigation and the role of technology. In: Engineering Handbook of Smart Technology for Aging, Disability, and Independence, pp. 479–500. Wiley (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Giudice, N.A., Palani, H.P., Brenner, E., Kramer, K.M.: Learning non-visual graphical information using a touch-based vibro-audio interface. In: Proceedings 14th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, pp. 103–110 (2012)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hoggan, E., Brewster, S.A., Johnston, J.: Investigating the effectiveness of tactile feedback for mobile touchscreens. In: Proceeding Twenty-Sixth Annual CHI Conference Human Factors Computer Systems - CHI 2008, p. 1573 (2008)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hoggan, E., Brewster, S.A.: Designing audio and tactile crossmodal icons for mobile devices. In: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces ICMI 2007, p. 162 (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Poppinga, B., Pielot, M., Magnusson, C., Rassmus-Grohn, K.: TouchOver map : audio-tactile exploration of interactive maps. In: Proceedings of 12th International Conference of Human Computer Interaction with Mobile devices ACM, Stock. Sweden, pp. 545–550 (2011)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Raja, M.K.: The development and validation of a new smartphone based non-visual spatial interface for learning indoor layouts, University of Maine (2011)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Palani, H.P., Giudice, N.A.: Evaluation of non-visual panning operations using touch-screen devices. In: Proceedings of 16th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers & Accessibility (2014)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gershon, P., Klatzky, R.L., Palani, H.P., Giudice, N.A.: Visual, tangible, and touch-screen: comparison of platforms for displaying simple graphics. Assist. Technol. 28, 1–6 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goncu, C., Marriott, K.: GraCALC: An accessible graphing calculator. In: Proceedings of 17th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers & Accessibility, pp. 311–312 (2015)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Goncu, C., Marriott, K.: GraVVITAS: generic multi-touch presentation of accessible graphics. In: Campos, P., Graham, N., Jorge, J., Nunes, N., Palanque, P., Winckler, M. (eds.) INTERACT 2011, Part I. LNCS, vol. 6946, pp. 30–48. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mullenbach, J., Shultz, C., Colgate, J.E., Piper, A.M.: Exploring affective communication through variable - friction surface haptics. In: Proceedings of SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 3963–3972 (2014)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Noguchi, T., Fukushima, Y., Yairi, I.E.: Evaluating information support system for visually impaired people with mobile touch screens and vibration. In: Proceedings of 13th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility, p. 243 (2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Xu, C., Israr, A., Poupyrev, I., Bau, O., Harrison, C.: Tactile display for the visually impaired using TeslaTouch. In: Proceedings CHI EA 2011, pp. 317–322 (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Klatzky, R.L., Giudice, N.A., Bennett, C.R., Loomis, J.M.: Touch-screen technology for the dynamic display of 2D spatial information without vision: Promise and progress. Multisens. Res. 27(5–6), 359–378 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jones, L.A., Lederman, S.J.: Human Hand Function. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Rastogi, R., Pawluk, T.V.D., Ketchum, J.: Intuitive tactile zooming for graphics accessed by individuals who are blind and visually impaired. IEEE Trans. Neural Syst. Rehabil. Eng. 21(4), 655–663 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Casey, S.M.: Cognitive mapping by the blind. J. Vis. Impair. Blind. 72(8), 297–301 (1978)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wijntjes, M.W.A., van Lienen, T., Verstijnen, I.M., Kappers, A.M.L.: Look what i have felt: unidentified haptic line drawings are identified after sketching. Acta Psychol. (Amst) 128(2), 255–263 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rastogi, R., Pawluk, D.T.V.: Toward an improved haptic zooming algorithm for graphical information accessed by individuals who are blind and visually impaired. Assist. Technol. 25(1), 9–15 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Passini, R., Proulx, G.: Wayfinding without vision: an experiment with congenitally totally blind people. Envi. Behav. 20(2), 227–252 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schloerb, D.W., Lahav, O., Desloge, J.G., Srinivasan, M.A.: BlindAid : virtual environment system for self-reliant trip planning and orientation and mobility training. In: Haptic Symposium, pp. 363–370 (2010)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schmitz, B., Ertl, T.: Making digital maps accessible using vibrations. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W., Karshmer, A. (eds.) ICCHP 2010, Part 1. LNCS, vol. 6179, pp. 100–107. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ziat, M., Gapenne, O., Stewart, J., Lenay, C., Bausse, J.: Design of a haptic zoom: levels and steps. In: Second Joint EuroHaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pp. 102–108 (2007)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Magnuson, C., Rassmus-Grohn, K.: Non-visual zoom and scrolling operations in a virtual haptic environment. In: Proceedings of Eurohaptics, pp. 6–9 (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Walker, S., Salisbury, J.K.: Large haptic topographic maps: marsview and the proxy graph algorithm. ACM Siggraph, pp. 83–92 (2003)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rastogi, R., Street, W.M., V Pawluk, D.T.: Automatic, intuitive zooming for people who are blind or visually impaired. In: Proceedings of 12th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computer Accessibility, pp. 239–240 (2010)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Chae, S., Yim, S.-B., Han, Y.: Flight simulation on tiled displays with distributed computing scheme. In: Kim, J.-H., Lee, K., Tanaka, S., Park, S.-H. (eds.) AsiaSim 2011. PICT, vol. 4, pp. 1–6. Springer, Heidelberg (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Tobler, W.R.: Bidimensional regression. Geogr. Anal. 26, 186–212 (1994)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hariprasath Palani
    • 1
    • 2
  • Uro Giudice
    • 1
  • Nicholas A. Giudice
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Spatial Informatics Program, School of Computing and Information ScienceUniversity of MaineOronoUSA
  2. 2.Virtual Environments and Multimodal Interaction (VEMI) LaboratoryUniversity of MaineOronoUSA

Personalised recommendations