User Requirements of Wearable Technology for Activity Tracking

A Comparison Between German and Chinese Users
  • Liuxing Tsao
  • Lukas Haferkamp
  • Liang MaEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9741)


Wearable technology has been enjoying a growth of market since it first caught attention of the public in 2010. More than 400 wearable devices have been developed and 60 % of them are activity trackers. China has a great market potential for wearable devices due to the high acceptance of wearable technology in Chinese users. It is important and necessary for designers to understand the specific user requirements and preferences of wearable devices for activity tracking and specify the different preferences among China and other countries. In this study, we collected both qualitative and quantitative user requirements of Chinese and Germans then compared the result to elicit practical design instructions. Semi-structured interviews were conducted firstly on ten Germans and ten Chinese to obtain qualitative requirements. A quantitative questionnaire was designed based on the findings of the interviews and a total of 158 respondents participated the survey (52 from Germany, 97 from China and 9 from other countries). Descriptive statistics were summarized and non-parametric tests were used to compare the requirements between Chinese users and German users.


Wearable technology User requirements Cultural differences Activity tracker 



This study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, Grant Number 71101079 and Grant Number 71471095). This study was also supported by Tsinghua University Initiative Scientific Research Program under Grant Number: 20131089234.


  1. 1.
    Markets and Markets. Wearable Electronics and Technology Market worth $11.61 Billion by 2020 (2014).
  2. 2.
    Huberty, K.L., Meunier, F., Faucette, J., Weiss, K., Kim, S., Ono, M., Almerud, M., et al.: Wearable Devices: The Internet of Things Becomes Personal (2014). Morgen Stanley Research Global Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ford, A.: What needs to happen for wearable devices to improve people’s health? (2015).
  4. 4.
    Tehrani, K., Michael, A.: Wearable Technology and Wearable Devices: Everything You Need to Know (2014).
  5. 5.
    Berghaus, S., Back, A.: Requirements elicitation and utilization scenarios for in-car use of wearable devices. In: 48th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 1028–1037 (2015)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vandrico Solutions Inc.: Wearable Technology Database (2015).
  7. 7.
    Allied Business Intelligence, Inc.: Wearable Computing Devices, Like Apple’s iWatch, Will Exceed 485 Million Annual Shipments by 2018 (2013)
  8. 8.
    Gebauer, J., Shaw, M.J., Subramanyam, R.: Once Built Well, They Might Come: An Empirical Study of Mobile E-Mail (2007).
  9. 9.
    Gebauer, J., Tang, Y., Baimai, C.: User requirements of mobile technology: results from a content analysis of user reviews. Inf. Syst. e-Bus. Manag. 6(4), 361–384 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brauer, C., Barth, J.: The Human Cloud: Wearable Technology from Novelty to Production (2013).
  11. 11.
    Starner, T.: The challenges of wearable computing: part 1. IEEE Micro 21(4), 44–52 (2001). doi: 10.1109/40.946681 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Motti, V.G., Caine, K.: Users’ privacy concerns about wearables: impact of form factor, sensors and type of data collected. In: Brenner, M., Christin, N., Johnson, B., Rohloff, K. (eds.) Financial Cryptography and Data Security. LNCS, vol. 8976, pp. 231–244. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Jackson, B.: Bionym releases developer hardware in pursuit of ‘persistent identity’ (2014).
  14. 14.
    CCTV. Huge market potential for wearable devices in China (2015).
  15. 15.
    Xinhua. Wearable devices have bright future in China: survey (2015).
  16. 16.
    Hofstede, G.H., Hofstede, G.J., Minkov, M.: Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind: Intercultural Cooperation and its Importance for Survival (Rev. and Expanded), 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York (2010)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang, Y., Norice, G., Cranor, L.F.: Who is concerned about what? A study of American, Chinese and Indian users’ privacy concerns on social network sites. In: McCune, J.M., Balacheff, B., Perrig, A., Sadeghi, A.-R., Sasse, A., Beres, Y. (eds.) Trust 2011. LNCS, vol. 6740, pp. 146–153. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Statista Inc.: Facts and statistics about Social Networks in China (2015).
  19. 19.
    Bundesverband Informationswirtschaft, Telekommunikation und neue Medien e.V. Mobile Nutzung sozialer Netzwerke voll im Trend (2013)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bloching, B., Hennig-Thurau, T., Kiene, R., vor dem Esche, J., Wege, E.: German digitalization Consumer Report (2014).
  21. 21.
    Rao, R.: Chinese messaging app WeChat poised to conquer India, the world (2015).
  22. 22.
    Mallat, N.: Exploring consumer adoption of mobile payments - a qualitative study. J. Strateg. Inf. Syst. 16, 413–432 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringTsinghua UniversityBeijingChina
  2. 2.RWTH Aachen UniversityAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations