Hybrid Muscular Ventricular Septal Defect Closure: Literature and Results

  • Gianfranco ButeraEmail author
  • Nicusor Lovin
  • Massimo Chessa


Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common congenital cardiac malformation at birth, with an incidence reported in literature between 15 and 40 % of total congenital heart diseases. They are usually an isolated finding; however, they can be also associated to complex congenital heart diseases [1, 2]. VSDs may be also a mechanical complication of myocardial infarction, with an incidence reported in literature of 0.26 % [3].


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gianfranco Butera
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nicusor Lovin
    • 2
  • Massimo Chessa
    • 1
  1. 1.IRCCS Policlinico San Donato MilaneseSan Donato MilaneseItaly
  2. 2.Institutul de Boli Cardiovasculare “Prof. Dr. George I. M. Georgescu”IasiRomania

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