Hybrid Closure of Muscular Ventricular Septal Defects: Anatomy, Clinical Scenarios, and Techniques

  • Kiran K. Mallula
  • Zahid AminEmail author


Congenital ventricular septal defects (VSDs) can exist as isolated defects or may be associated with other cardiac anomalies, such as tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle (DORV), D-transposition of great arteries (D-TGA), truncus arteriosus, or interrupted aortic arch. To date, there is no consensus on the best way to classify such defects, nor even on the curved surface that is taken to represent the defect [1]. Muscular VSDs (mVSDs) are the second most common type of VSD after perimembranous defects based on most series and account for 10–15 % of all VSDs [2, 3]. These have exclusively muscular borders and can have gross malalignment between their caudal and cranial borders. In addition to this malalignment, they can open into different parts of the right ventricle. They can be further subclassified based on their geographical location whether they open centrally, apically, anteriorly, or to the right ventricular inlet or outlet components [1]. The left ventricular view shows fewer overlying trabeculae, and multiple defects frequently coalesce to form a single defect on the left side. Occasionally such apical defects are quite large [4, 5].


Ventricular Free Wall Double Outlet Right Ventricle Interrupted Aortic Arch Delivery Sheath Mitral Valve Apparatus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Pediatric CardiologyChildren’s Hospital, Louisiana State UniversityNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Division of Pediatric CardiologyChildren’s Hospital of Georgia, Georgia Regents UniversityAugustaUSA

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