Pulmonary Valvuloplasty: Fetal, Neonatal, and Follow-Up Outcomes
The primary management and outcome of unborn children with atresia (PA/IVS) or critical stenosis of the pulmonary valve (CPS) and intact ventricular septum are still under discussion. The degree of the morphological and clinical picture of this disease can vary from a hypoplastic right heart syndrome with a univentricular physiology to a biventricular heart only with the need for valvuloplasty after delivery. Neonates with CPS or PA/IVS show considerable variation of abnormalities of the right ventricle, tricuspid valve (TV), and coronary arteries. Therefore, there is a wide range in the reported 5-year survival rate from 50 to 86% . This cardiac malformation is rarely associated with chromosomal defects or extra-cardiac malformations. Therefore, the cardiologist’s prediction of a univentricular or biventricular circulation could have even more influence on the parents’ choice regarding the future of the pregnancy . The focus of this chapter lies especially on the fetal and neonatal outcome of fetuses, who underwent pulmonary valvuloplasty in utero.
KeywordsTricuspid Valve Pericardial Effusion Pulmonary Valve Intact Ventricular Septum Biventricular Circulation