Fetal Pulmonary Valvuloplasty: Natural History and Echocardiographic Evaluation of Critical Pulmonary Stenosis/Pulmonary Atresia with Intact Ventricular Septum

  • Vlasta FesslovaEmail author
  • Savina Mannarino


Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) is a morphologically heterogeneous lesion characterized by variable dimensions of the right ventricle (RV) from a normal size to a variable degree of hypoplasia, often with associated anomalies of the coronary circulation. Critical pulmonary stenosis (CPS), also, is often present with an abnormal right ventricle.


Right Ventricle Tricuspid Valve Right Atrium Coronary Artery Anomaly Ductus Venosus 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center of Fetal CardiologyPoliclinico San Donato IRCCSMilanItaly
  2. 2.Pediatric Unit, Department of the Mother and Child HealthIRCCS Policlinico San Matteo FoundationPaviaItaly

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