Advertisement

Antimicrobials in Caries Prevention

  • Ece EdenEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Regularly removing biofilm and controlling risk factors are essential to the individual and the clinician for managing dental caries. As an alternative way of preventing and managing the disease, researchers have developed and investigated antimicrobial agents to counter the bacterial component in the caries process. However, these agents are considered to have limited value and are therefore restricted to special care groups. This chapter summarises the effect of antimicrobial agents such as chlorhexidine, iodine and ozone as well as the antimicrobial effect of natural products on managing carious lesion development.

Keywords

Oral Health Dental Caries Streptococcus Mutans Carious Lesion Early Childhood Caries 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgement

I would like to thank Prof. Dr. Jo E. Frencken for critically reading the text.

References

  1. 1.
    Köhler B, Andréen I. Mutans streptococci and caries prevalence in children after early maternal caries prevention: a follow-up at 19 years of age. Caries Res. 2012;46(5):474–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Köhler B, Andréen I. Mutans streptococci and caries prevalence in children after early maternal caries prevention: a follow-up at eleven and fifteen years of age. Caries Res. 2010;44(5):453–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kornman KS, Polverini PJ. Clinical application of genetics to guide prevention and treatment of oral diseases. Clin Genet. 2014;86(1):44–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rabe P, Twetman S, Kinnby B, Svensäter G, Davies JR. Effect of fluoride and chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinses on plaque biofilms. Open Dent J. 2015;9:106–11.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baffone W, Sorgente G, Campana R, Patrone V, Sisti D, Falcioni T. Comparative effect of chlorhexidine and some mouthrinses on bacterial biofilm formation on titanium surface. Curr Microbiol. 2011;62(2):445–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Signoretto C, Canepari P, Stauder M, Vezzulli L, Pruzzo C. Functional foods and strategies contrasting bacterial adhesion. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2012;23(2):160–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Takenaka S, Trivedi HM, Corbin A, Pitts B, Stewart PS. Direct visualization of spatial and temporal patterns of antimicrobial action within model oral biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008;74(6):1869–75.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Takenaka S, Pitts B, Trivedi HM, Stewart PS. Diffusion of macromolecules in model oral biofilms. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009;75(6):1750–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Van Strydonck DA, Slot DE, Van der Velden U, Van der Weijden F. Effect of a chlorhexidine mouthrinse on plaque, gingival inflammation and staining in gingivitis patients: a systematic review. J Clin Periodontol. 2012;39(11):1042–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Matthijs S, Adriaens PA. Chlorhexidine varnishes: a review. J Clin Periodontol. 2002;29(1):1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    van Rijkom HM, Truin GJ, Van’t Hof MA. A meta-analysis of clinical studies on the caries-inhibiting effect of chlorhexidine treatment. J Dent Res. 1996;75(2):790–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Walsh T, Oliveira-Neto JM, Moore D. Chlorhexidine treatment for the prevention of dental caries in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;4:CD008457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ribeiro LG, Hashizume LN, Maltz M. The effect of different formulations of chlorhexidine in reducing levels of mutans streptococci in the oral cavity: a systematic review of the literature. J Dent. 2007;35(5):359–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Oyanagi T, Tagami J, Matin K. Potentials of mouthwashes in disinfecting cariogenic bacteria and biofilms leading to inhibition of caries. Open Dent J. 2012;6:23–30.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chevalier M, Sakarovitch C, Precheur I, Lamure J, Pouyssegur-Rougier V. Antiseptic mouthwashes could worsen xerostomia in patients taking polypharmacy. Acta Odontol Scand. 2015;73(4):267–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Loesche WJ. Role of Streptococcus mutans in human dental decay. Microbiol Rev. 1986;50(4):353–80.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ge Y, Caufield PW, Fisch GS, Li Y. Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis colonization correlated with caries experience in children. Caries Res. 2008;42(6):444–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ersin NK, Eronat N, Cogulu D, Uzel A, Aksit S. Association of maternal-child characteristics as a factor in early childhood caries and salivary bacterial counts. J Dent Child (Chic). 2006;73(2):105–11.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Teanpaisan R, Chaethong W, Piwat S, Thitasomakul S. Vertical transmission of mutans streptococci and lactobacillus in Thai families. Pediatr Dent. 2012;34(2):e24–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Katre AN, Damle S. Comparison of mutans streptococcal strains of father, mother, and child in Indian families using chromosomal DNA fingerprinting. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2013;14(5):911–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Laitala ML, Alanen P, Isokangas P, Söderling E, Pienihäkkinen K. Long-term effects of maternal prevention on children’s dental decay and need for restorative treatment. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2013;41(6):534–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Plonka KA, Pukallus ML, Barnett AG, Walsh LJ, Holcombe TF, Seow WK. A longitudinal study comparing mutans streptococci and lactobacilli colonisation in dentate children aged 6 to 24 months. Caries Res. 2012;46(4):385–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Medeiros PB, Otero SA, Frencken JE, Bronkhorst EM, Leal SC. Effectiveness of an oral health program for mothers and their infants. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2015;25(1):29–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Twetman S, Dhar V. Evidence of effectiveness of current therapies to prevent and treat early childhood caries. Pediatr Dent. 2015;37(3):246–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Topaloglu-Ak A, Ertugrul F, Eden E, Ates M, Bulut H. Effect of orthodontic appliances on oral microbiota–6 month follow-up. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2011;35(4):433–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Pithon MM, Sant’Anna LI, Baião FC, dos Santos RL, Coqueiro Rda S, Maia LC. Assessment of the effectiveness of mouthwashes in reducing cariogenic biofilm in orthodontic patients: a systematic review. J Dent. 2015;43(3):297–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tang X, Sensat ML, Stoltenberg JL. The antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine varnish on mutans streptococci in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances: a systematic review of clinical efficacy. Int J Dent Hyg. 2015.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Derks A, Frencken J, Bronkhorst E, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM, Katsaros C. Effect of chlorhexidine varnish application on mutans streptococci counts in orthodontic patients. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2008;133(3):435–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Derks A, Katsaros C, Frencken JE, van’t Hof MA, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM. Caries-inhibiting effect of preventive measures during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances. A systematic review. Caries Res. 2004;38(5):413–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baca P, Clavero J, Baca AP, González-Rodríguez MP, Bravo M, Valderrama MJ. Effect of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish on root caries in a geriatric population: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. J Dent. 2009;37(9):679–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rethman MP, Beltrán-Aguilar ED, Billings RJ, Hujoel PP, Katz BP, Milgrom P, et al. Nonfluoride caries-preventive agents: executive summary of evidence-based clinical recommendations. J Am Dent Assoc. 2011;142(9):1065–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Slot DE, Vaandrager NC, Van Loveren C, Van Palenstein Helderman WH, Van der Weijden GA. The effect of chlorhexidine varnish on root caries: a systematic review. Caries Res. 2011;45(2):162–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Twetman S. Antimicrobials in future caries control? A review with special reference to chlorhexidine treatment. Caries Res. 2004;38(3):223–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhang Q, van’t Hof MA, Truin GJ, Bronkhorst EM, van Palenstein Helderman WH. Caries-inhibiting effect of chlorhexidine varnish in pits and fissures. J Dent Res. 2006;85(5):469–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ersin NK, Eden E, Eronat N, Totu FI, Ates M. Effectiveness of 2-year application of school-based chlorhexidine varnish, sodium fluoride gel, and dental health education programs in high-risk adolescents. Quintessence Int. 2008;39(2):e45–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Richards D. Caries prevention – little evidence for use of chlorhexidine varnishes and gels. Evid Based Dent. 2015;16(2):43–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang Q, van Palenstein Helderman WH, van’t Hof MA, Truin GJ. Chlorhexidine varnish for preventing dental caries in children, adolescents and young adults: a systematic review. Eur J Oral Sci. 2006;114(6):449–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Baca P, Muñoz MJ, Bravo M, Junco P, Baca AP. Effectiveness of chlorhexidine-thymol varnish for caries reduction in permanent first molars of 6-7-year-old children: 24-month clinical trial. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2002;30(5):363–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    James P, Parnell C, Whelton H. The caries-preventive effect of chlorhexidine varnish in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Caries Res. 2010;44(4):333–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Baca P, Junco P, Bravo M, Baca AP, Muñoz MJ. Caries incidence in permanent first molars after discontinuation of a school-based chlorhexidine-thymol varnish program. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003;31(3):179–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Johansson E, Andersson-Wenckert I, Hagenbjörk-Gustafsson A, Van Dijken JW. Ozone air levels adjacent to a dental ozone gas delivery system. Acta Odontol Scand. 2007;65(6):324–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Brunekreef B, Holgate ST. Air pollution and health. Lancet. 2002;360(9341):1233–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Millar BJ, Hodson N. Assessment of the safety of two ozone delivery devices. J Dent. 2007;35(3):195–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Almaz ME, Sönmez I. Ozone therapy in the management and prevention of caries. J Formos Med Assoc. 2015;114(1):3–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Azarpazhooh A, Limeback H. The application of ozone in dentistry: a systematic review of literature. J Dent. 2008;36(2):104–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Aykut-Yetkiner A, Eden E, Ertuğrul F, Ergin E, Ateş M. Antibacterial efficacy of prophylactic ozone treatment on patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Acta Odontol Scand. 2013;71(6):1620–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rickard GD, Richardson R, Johnson T, McColl D, Hooper L. Ozone therapy for the treatment of dental caries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;3:CD004153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Brazzelli M, McKenzie L, Fielding S, Fraser C, Clarkson J, Kilonzo M, et al. Systematic review of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HealOzone for the treatment of occlusal pit/fissure caries and root caries. Health Technol Assess. 2006;10(16):iii–iv, ix–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Amin MS, Harrison RL, Benton TS, Roberts M, Weinstein P. Effect of povidone-iodine on Streptococcus mutans in children with extensive dental caries. Pediatr Dent. 2004;26(1):5–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Neeraja R, Anantharaj A, Praveen P, Karthik V, Vinitha M. The effect of povidone-iodine and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque Streptococcus mutans count in 6- to 12-year-old school children: an in vivo study. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2008;26 Suppl 1:S14–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Xu X, Li JY, Zhou XD, Xie Q, Zhan L, Featherstone JD. Randomized controlled clinical trial on the evaluation of bacteriostatic and cariostatic effects of a novel povidone-iodine/fluoride foam in children with high caries risk. Quintessence Int. 2009;40(3):215–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Milgrom PM, Tut OK, Mancl LA. Topical iodine and fluoride varnish effectiveness in the primary dentition: a quasi-experimental study. J Dent Child (Chic). 2011;78(3):143–7.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Berkowitz RJ, Koo H, McDermott MP, Whelehan MT, Ragusa P, Kopycka-Kedzierawski DT, et al. Adjunctive chemotherapeutic suppression of mutans streptococci in the setting of severe early childhood caries: an exploratory study. J Public Health Dent. 2009;69(3):163–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Panagakos FS, Volpe AR, Petrone ME, DeVizio W, Davies RM, Proskin HM. Advanced oral antibacterial/anti-inflammatory technology: a comprehensive review of the clinical benefits of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride dentifrice. J Clin Dent. 2005;16(Suppl):S1–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Evans A, Leishman SJ, Walsh LJ, Seow WK. Inhibitory effects of children’s toothpastes on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2015;16(2):219–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Blinkhorn A, Bartold PM, Cullinan MP, Madden TE, Marshall RI, Raphael SL, et al. Is there a role for triclosan/copolymer toothpaste in the management of periodontal disease? Br Dent J. 2009;207(3):117–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Riley P, Lamont T. Triclosan/copolymer containing toothpastes for oral health. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;12:CD010514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Vered Y, Zini A, Mann J, DeVizio W, Stewart B, Zhang YP, et al. Comparison of a dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride, 0.3% triclosan, and 2.0% copolymer in a silica base, and a dentifrice containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base: a three-year clinical trial of root caries and dental crowns among adults. J Clin Dent. 2009;20(2):62–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pilna J, Vlkova E, Krofta K, Nesvadba V, Rada V, Kokoska L. In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of ethanol GRAS plant and supercritical CO2 hop extracts on planktonic cultures of oral pathogenic microorganisms. Fitoterapia. 2015;105:260–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chung JY, Choo JH, Lee MH, Hwang JK. Anticariogenic activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) against Streptococcus mutans. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(4):261–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rukayadi Y, Kim KH, Hwang JK, Yanti. In vitro anti-biofilm activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans Houtt against oral primary colonizer bacteria. Phytother Res. 2008;22(3):308–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Van Loveren C, Broukal Z, Oganessian E. Functional foods/ingredients and dental caries. Eur J Nutr. 2012;51 Suppl 2:S15–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jeon JG, Rosalen PL, Falsetta ML, Koo H. Natural products in caries research: current (limited) knowledge, challenges and future perspective. Caries Res. 2011;45(3):243–63.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gaur S, Agnihotri R. Green tea: a novel functional food for the oral health of older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2014;14(2):238–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Subramaniam P, Eswara U, Maheshwar Reddy KR. Effect of different types of tea on Streptococcus mutans: an in vitro study. Indian J Dent Res. 2012;23(1):43–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Stauder M, Papetti A, Daglia M, Vezzulli L, Gazzani G, Varaldo PE, et al. Inhibitory activity by barley coffee components towards Streptococcus mutans biofilm. Curr Microbiol. 2010;61(5):417–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dziedzic A, Kubina R, Wojtyczka RD, Kabała-Dzik A, Tanasiewicz M, Morawiec T. The antibacterial effect of ethanol extract of polish propolis on mutans streptococci and lactobacilli isolated from saliva. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:681891.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    De Luca MP, Franca JR, Macedo FA, Grenho L, Cortes ME, Faraco AA, et al. Propolis varnish: antimicrobial properties against cariogenic bacteria, cytotoxicity, and sustained-release profile. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:348647.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Franca JR, De Luca MP, Ribeiro TG, Castilho RO, Moreira AN, Santos VR, et al. Propolis–based chitosan varnish: drug delivery, controlled release and antimicrobial activity against oral pathogen bacteria. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014;14:478.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Koo H, Cury JA, Rosalen PL, Ambrosano GM, Ikegaki M, Park YK. Effect of a mouthrinse containing selected propolis on 3-day dental plaque accumulation and polysaccharide formation. Caries Res. 2002;36(6):445–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Prabhakar AR, Karuna YM, Yavagal C, Deepak BM. Cavity disinfection in minimally invasive dentistry – comparative evaluation of Aloe vera and propolis: a randomized clinical trial. Contemp Clin Dent. 2015;6 Suppl 1:S24–31.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Araujo MW, Charles CA, Weinstein RB, McGuire JA, Parikh-Das AM, Du Q, et al. Meta-analysis of the effect of an essential oil-containing mouthrinse on gingivitis and plaque. J Am Dent Assoc. 2015;146(8):610–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Van Leeuwen MP, Slot DE, Van der Weijden GA. The effect of an essential-oils mouthrinse as compared to a vehicle solution on plaque and gingival inflammation: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Dent Hyg. 2014;12(3):160–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Filoche SK, Soma K, Sissons CH. Antimicrobial effects of essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine digluconate. Oral Microbiol Immunol. 2005;20(4):221–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PedodonticsEge University, School of DentistryİzmirTurkey

Personalised recommendations