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Evolution of Translation in Mitochondria

  • Aldo E. García-Guerrero
  • Angélica Zamudio-Ochoa
  • Yolanda Camacho-Villasana
  • Rodolfo García-Villegas
  • Adrián Reyes-Prieto
  • Xochitl Pérez-MartínezEmail author

Abstract

Mitochondria arose from bacterial endosymbionts. One of the consequences of the endosymbiosis event was that the ancestral bacterial genome underwent deep transformations, including massive gene transfer to the host nucleus and gene losses and rearrangements. Upon eukaryotic origin, the gene content, size and shape of mitochondrial genomes evolved differently throughout eukaryote’s radiation into many lineages. As a consequence of this phenomenon, the mechanisms for gene expression in mitochondria have also co-evolved and diverged from the ancestral bacterial systems. Mitochondria possess the complete machinery to translate reduced sets of messenger RNAs transcribed in these organelles. Although this machinery retained many features from bacteria, it has also undergone modifications across eukaryote lineages, rendering this process highly specialized and regulated. In this chapter, we summarize and discuss the general characteristics of the mitochondrial translation machinery. We also discuss the current knowledge on mitochondrial translation across different eukaryotic phyla and compare it with its bacterial counterpart to throw light on the evolution of translation in mitochondria.

Keywords

Mitochondrial Genome Land Plant Small Ribosomal Subunit Mitochondrial Translation Mammalian Mitochondrion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a research grant from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (47514 to XP-M) and fellowships 255917 (to AE. G-G), 298954 (to AZ-O) and 250726 (to RG-V); Programa de Apoyo a Proyectos de Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica (PAPIIT), UNAM (IN204414 to XP-M). AE.G-G and RG-V are students of the Programade Doctoradoen Ciencias Biomédicas, UNAM.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aldo E. García-Guerrero
    • 1
  • Angélica Zamudio-Ochoa
    • 1
  • Yolanda Camacho-Villasana
    • 1
  • Rodolfo García-Villegas
    • 1
  • Adrián Reyes-Prieto
    • 2
  • Xochitl Pérez-Martínez
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Genética Molecular, Instituto de Fisiología CelularUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Department of BiologyUniversity of New BrunswickFrederictonCanada

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