Photovoltaics and the Energy System: Adaptation of Layout and Load
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In the foreseeable future, sustainable electrical energy systems should be capable of handling 100 % renewable energy across electrical distribution grids. Due to the recent drop in price for photovoltaic (PV) systems, PV will play a major role in the global renewable energy portfolio. The technical implications of this energy transition from fossil fuels to renewables are manifold and will affect all sectors of electricity supply (generation, transmission, distribution, operation management) and, consequently, lead to a new system design. The major challenge facing PV’s effective integration into the grid is variable generation as a result of positioning to the sun, weather conditions, and load level. This article addresses generation issues by suggesting that PV power plants be adapted to load requirements to achieve peak power output during periods of high demand via azimuth and tilt angle modifications, via thermal conditioning of PV modules, via smart site selection, and via a combination of complementary energy sources. Moreover, the article also addresses several possibilities regarding load management such as load shifting, inducements, load adaptation, and appropriate market design.
KeywordsEnergy Transition Energiewende PV Solar Generation management Generation profile Load profile Load management Load adaptation Virtual storage Cost reduction P2G G2V V2G
Sincere thanks to Mr. Ewald Japs for the graphics of the spot-market prices (Fig. 7.1), Mr. Ali Ameli for the “electric mobility” graphics (Fig. 7.10), Dr. Yassin Bouyraaman for the “power-to-gas” graphics (Fig. 7.9), Dr. Dirk Prior for the “LVC” graphics (Fig. 7.8), Mrs. Alessandra Simplicio for the “marketplace” graphics (Fig. 7.12), Prof. Volker Quaschning for the graphics on load curve development (Fig. 7.7), and Mr. Jochen Marwede for the graphics showing the effect of eastern and western orientation of the PV power plants (Figs. 7.2 and 7.3).
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