Photovoltaics and the Energy System: Adaptation of Layout and Load

  • Stefan KrauterEmail author


In the foreseeable future, sustainable electrical energy systems should be capable of handling 100 % renewable energy across electrical distribution grids. Due to the recent drop in price for photovoltaic (PV) systems, PV will play a major role in the global renewable energy portfolio. The technical implications of this energy transition from fossil fuels to renewables are manifold and will affect all sectors of electricity supply (generation, transmission, distribution, operation management) and, consequently, lead to a new system design. The major challenge facing PV’s effective integration into the grid is variable generation as a result of positioning to the sun, weather conditions, and load level. This article addresses generation issues by suggesting that PV power plants be adapted to load requirements to achieve peak power output during periods of high demand via azimuth and tilt angle modifications, via thermal conditioning of PV modules, via smart site selection, and via a combination of complementary energy sources. Moreover, the article also addresses several possibilities regarding load management such as load shifting, inducements, load adaptation, and appropriate market design.


Energy Transition Energiewende PV Solar Generation management Generation profile Load profile Load management Load adaptation Virtual storage Cost reduction P2G G2V V2G 



Sincere thanks to Mr. Ewald Japs for the graphics of the spot-market prices (Fig. 7.1), Mr. Ali Ameli for the “electric mobility” graphics (Fig. 7.10), Dr. Yassin Bouyraaman for the “power-to-gas” graphics (Fig. 7.9), Dr. Dirk Prior for the “LVC” graphics (Fig. 7.8), Mrs. Alessandra Simplicio for the “marketplace” graphics (Fig. 7.12), Prof. Volker Quaschning for the graphics on load curve development (Fig. 7.7), and Mr. Jochen Marwede for the graphics showing the effect of eastern and western orientation of the PV power plants (Figs. 7.2 and 7.3).


  1. 1.
    S. Krauter, R. Hanitsch, Performance of a partly structured surface at a PV-Module. Proceedings of the 11th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Montreux (Switzerland), 12–16 Oct 1992, p. 1351–1354Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    EPEX Intraday Market Data, online (2013) access via
  3. 3.
    E. Japs, G. Sonnenrein, J. Steube, J. Vrabec, E. Kenig, S. Krauter, Technical Investigation of a photovoltaic module with integrated improved phase change material. Proceedings of the 28th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Paris (France), 28 Sept–4 Oct 2013, p. 500–502Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. Japs, S. Peters, G. Sonnenrein, S. Krauter, Energy-economic comparison of photovoltaic modules equipped with a layer of conventional and improved phase-change material. Proceedings of the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, Denver CO (USA), 8–13 June 2014Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Krauter, Increased electrical yield via water flow over the front of photovoltaic panels. Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 82, 137–137 (2004)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Sterner: Bioenergy and renewable power methane in integrated 100% renewable energy systems. Limiting global warming by transforming energy systems. Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency 14. Kassel University Press. ISBN: 978 3 89958 798 2.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Krauter, PV 3.0, Proceedings of the 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt a.M. (Germany), 24–28 Sept 2012, p. 4520–4522Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical Energy Technology - Sustainable Energy ConceptsUniversity of PaderbornPaderbornGermany
  2. 2.Photovoltaik Institut Berlin AGBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations