Food Safety pp 89-111 | Cite as

Heterocyclic Amines

  • Amna SaharEmail author
  • Ubaid ur Rahman
  • Muhammad Issa Khan
  • Muhammad Azam Khan


Heterocyclic amines are the potential mutagens and carcinogens that are generally responsible for inducing several types of cancers and DNA damage after accumulation in the body. Formation of these carcinogenic compounds is linked with the meat products that are subjected to higher temperature during processing for longer periods of time. Detection and quantification of these compounds is a big challenge for the scientists. With the advancement in the technology, several reliable and comprehensive techniques have been developed to detect the presence of these mutagens. However, still there is a need to introduce some rapid and more precise techniques that can determine the actual concentrations and types of heterocyclic amines in the food samples. Additionally, more studies should be conducted to evaluate the potential of several antioxidant compounds that can control the quantity of heterocyclic amines without adversely affecting the organoleptic attributes of food products.


Meat Heterocyclic amines Carcinogens Antioxidants 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amna Sahar
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ubaid ur Rahman
    • 2
  • Muhammad Issa Khan
    • 2
  • Muhammad Azam Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and TechnologyUniversity of Agriculture FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.National Institute of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Food, Nutrition and Home SciencesUniversity of Agriculture FaisalabadFaisalabadPakistan

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