Food Safety pp 57-87 | Cite as

Toxic Elements

  • Parvaneh HajebEmail author
  • Shahram Shakibazadeh
  • Jens J. Sloth


Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given.


Toxic elements Food safety Occurrence Risk assessments Analytical techniques 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Parvaneh Hajeb
    • 1
    Email author
  • Shahram Shakibazadeh
    • 2
  • Jens J. Sloth
    • 1
  1. 1.National Food InstituteTechnical University of DenmarkSøborgDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of AgricultureUniversiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

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