A Case Study on the Availability of Open-Source Components for Game Development

  • Maria-Eleni PaschaliEmail author
  • Apostolos Ampatzoglou
  • Stamatia Bibi
  • Alexander Chatzigeorgiou
  • Ioannis Stamelos
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9679)


Nowadays the amount of source code that is freely available inside open-source software repositories offers great reuse opportunities to software developers. Therefore, it is expected that the implementation of several requirements can be facilitated by reusing open source software components. In this paper, we focus on the reuse opportunities that can be offered in one specific application domain, i.e., game development. In particular, we performed an embedded multiple case study on approximately 110 open-source games, exploiting a large-scale repository of OSS components, and investigated: (a) which game genres can benefit from open source reuse, and (b) what types of requirements can the available open-source components map to. The results of the case study suggest that: (a) game genres with complex game logic, e.g., First Person Shooter, Strategy, Role-Playing, and Sport games offer the most reuse opportunities, and (b) the most common requirement types that can be developed by reusing OSS components are related to scenarios and characters.


  1. 1.
    9126-2001: ISO/IEC, Software engineering - Product quality (Part 1: Quality model), Geneva, Switzerland (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ajila, S.A., Wu, D.: Empirical study of the effects of open source adoption on software development economics. J. Syst. Softw. Elsevier 80(9), 1517–1529 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ampatzoglou, A., Stamelos, I.: Software engineering research for computer games: A systematic review. Inf. Softw. Technol. Elsevier 52(9), 888–901 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ampatzoglou, A., Stamelos, I., Gkortzis, A., Deligiannis, I.: Methodology on extracting reusable software candidate components from open source games. In: Proceeding of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference, pp. 93–100. ACM, Finland (2012) Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ampatzoglou, A., Michou, O., Stamelos, I.: Building and mining a repository of design pattern instances: Practical and research benefits. Entertainment Comput. Elsevier 4(2), 131–142 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ampatzoglou, A., Gkortzis, A., Charalampidou, S., Avgeriou, P.: An embedded multiple-case study on oss design quality assessment across domains. In: 7th International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM 2013), pp. 255–258. ACM/IEEE Computer Society, Baltimore, USA, 10–11 October 2013Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arvanitou, E.M., Ampatzoglou, A., Chatzigeorgiou, A., Avgeriou, P.: Introducing a ripple effect measure: a theoretical and empirical validation. In: 9th International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM 2015), ACM/IEEE Computer Society, Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baldassarre, M.T., Bianchi, A., Caivano, D., Visaggio, G.: An industrial case study on reuse oriented development. In: 21st International Conference on Software Maintenance (ICSM 2005), IEEE Computer Society, 283–292, September 2005Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bansiya, J., Davies, C.G.: A hierarchical model for object-oriented design quality assessment. Trans. Softw. Eng. IEEE Comput. Soc. 28(1), 4–17 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Basili, V.R., Caldiera, G., Rombach, H.D.: Goal question metric paradigm, Encyclopedia of Software Engineering, pp. 528–532. John Wiley & Sons, New York (1994)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Callele, D., Neufeld, E., Schneider, K.: Emotional requirements in video games. In: 14th International Conference on Requirements Engineering, IEEE Computer Society, Minneapolis, USA,11 – 15 September 2006Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cho, H., Yang, J.S.: Architecture patterns for mobile games product lines. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT 2008), pp. 118–122. IEEE Computer Society Korea, 17 – 20 February 2008Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Consumer Electronics Association, “Digital America”, published electronically at.
  14. 14.
    Crnkovic, I., Hnich, B., Johnson, T., Kiziltan, Z.: Specification, implementation, and deployment of components. Commun. Assoc. Comput. Mach. 45(10), 35–40 (2002)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Folmer, E.: Component based game development – a solution to escalating costs and expanding deadlines? In: Schmidt, H.W., Crnković, I., Heineman, G.T., Stafford, J.A. (eds.) CBSE 2007. LNCS, vol. 4608, pp. 66–73. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Frakes, W.B., Fox, C.J.: Quality improvement using a software reuse failure modes model. Trans. Softw. Eng. IEEE Comput. Soc. 22(4), 274–279 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Franch, X., Carvallo, J.P.: Using quality models in software package selection. Softw. IEEE Comput. Soc. 20(1), 34–41 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Furini, M.: An architecture to easily produce adventure and movie games for the mobile scenario. Comput. Entertainment Assoc. Comput. Mach. 6(2), 1–16 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gabow, H.N.: Path-based depth-first search for strong and bi-connected components. Inf. Process. Lett. Elsevier 74(3–4), 107–114 (2000)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Griffith, I., Izurieta, C.: Design pattern decay: the case for class grime. In: 8th International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM 2014), ACM/IEEE Computer Society, Torino, Italy, 18–19 September 2014Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Haefliger, S., von Krogh, G., Spaeth, S.: Code reuse in open source software. Manage. Sci. PubsOnline 54(1), 180–193 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ham, H., Lee, Y.: An empirical study for quantitative evaluation of game satisfaction. In: 2006 International Conference on Hybrid Information Technology, pp. 724–729. ACM, November 2006Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Heinemann, L., Deissenboeck, F., Gleirscher, M., Hummel, B., Irlbeck, M.: On the extent and nature of software reuse in open source java projects. In: Schmid, K. (ed.) ICSR 2011. LNCS, vol. 6727, pp. 207–222. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Johnson, I., Snook, C., Edmunds, A., Butler, M.: Rigorous development of reusable, domain-specific components, for complex applications. In: 3rd International Workshop on Critical Systems Development with UML (CSDUML 2004), Springer (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kasurinen, J., Maglyas, A., Smolander, K.: Is requirements engineering useless in game development? In: Salinesi, C., Weerd, I. (eds.) REFSQ 2014. LNCS, vol. 8396, pp. 1–16. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Krueger, C.W.: Software reuse. Comput. Surv. ACM 24(2), 131–184 (1992)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lau, K.K., Wang, Z.: A taxonomy of software component models. In: 31st EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (EUROMICRO-SEAA), pp. 88–95. IEEE (2005)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lee, W.P., Liu, L.J., Chiou, J.A.: A component-based framework to rapidly prototype online chess games for home entertainment. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybermetrics (SMC 2006), IEEE Computer Society, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 4011–4016, 8–11 October 2006Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Martin, R.C.: Agile software development: principles, patterns and practices. Prentice Hall, New Jersey (2003)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    McShaffry, M.: Game Coding Complete. Paraglyph Press, Arizona, USA (2003)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mockus, A.: Large-scale code reuse in open source software. In: 1st International Workshop on Emerging Trends in FLOSS Research and Development (FLOSS 2007), IEEE Computer Society (2007)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Morisio, M., Romano, D., Stamelos, I.: Quality, productivity, and learning in framework-based development: an exploratory case study. Trans. Softw. Eng. IEEE Comput. Soc. 28(9), 876–888 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Paschali, M.E., Ampatzoglou, A., Chatzigeorgiou, A., Stamelos, I.: Non-functional requirements that influence gaming experience: A survey on gamers satisfaction factors. In: 18th Academic MindTREK Conference (MindTREK 2015), ACM, 4–6 November 2014, Tampere, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Passos, E.B., Weslley, J., Walter, E., Clua, G., Montenegro, A., Murta, L.: Smart composition of game objects using dependency injection. Comput. Entertainment, Assoc. Comput. Mach. 7(4), 408–423 (2009)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reimanis, D.: A research plan to characterize, evaluate, and predict the impacts of behavioral decay in design patterns. In: 13th International Doctoral Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering (IDOSE 2015), Beijing, ChinaGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Raemaekers, S., van Deursen, A., Visser, J.: An analysis of dependence on third-party libraries in open source and proprietary systems. In: 6th International Workshop on Software Quality and Maintainability (SQM 2012), March 2012Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Runeson, P., Host, M., Rainer, A., Regnell, B.: Case Study Research in Software Engineering: Guidelines and Examples. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schwittek, W., Eicker, S.: A study on third party component reuse in java enterprise open source software. In: 16th International Symposium on Component-based Software Engineering (CBSE 2013), pp. 75–80. ACM (2013)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sojer, M., Henkel, J.: Code Reuse in Open Source Software Development: Quantitative Evidence, Drivers, and Impediments. J. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 11(12), 868–901 (2010)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Szyperski, C.: Component Software: Beyond Object-Oriented Programming. Addison-Wesley International, Massachusetts, USA (1997)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    van Lent, M., Swartout, W.: Games: Once more, with Feeling. Comput. IEEE Comput. Soc. 40(8), 98–100 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria-Eleni Paschali
    • 1
    Email author
  • Apostolos Ampatzoglou
    • 2
  • Stamatia Bibi
    • 3
  • Alexander Chatzigeorgiou
    • 4
  • Ioannis Stamelos
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  2. 2.Institute of Mathematics and Computer ScienceUniversity of GroningenGroningenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Informatics and TelecommunicationsUniversity of Western MacedoniaKozaniGreece
  4. 4.Department of Applied InformaticsUniversity of MacedoniaThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations