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NMR of Membrane Proteins: Beyond Crystals

Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 922)

Abstract

Membrane proteins are essential for the flow of signals, nutrients and energy between cells and between compartments of the cell. Their mechanisms can only be fully understood once the precise structures, dynamics and interactions involved are defined at atomic resolution. Through advances in solution and solid state NMR spectroscopy, this information is now available, as demonstrated by recent studies of stable peripheral and transmembrane proteins. Here we highlight recent cases of G-protein coupled receptors, outer membrane proteins, such as VDAC, phosphoinositide sensors, such as the FAPP-1 pleckstrin homology domain, and enzymes including the metalloproteinase MMP-12. The studies highlighted have resulted in the determination of the 3D structures, dynamical properties and interaction surfaces for membrane-associated proteins using advanced isotope labelling strategies, solubilisation systems and NMR experiments designed for very high field magnets. Solid state NMR offers further insights into the structure and multimeric assembly of membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, as well as into interactions with ligands and targets. Remaining challenges for wider application of NMR to membrane structural biology include the need for overexpression and purification systems for the production of isotope-labelled proteins with fragile folds, and the availability of only a few expensive perdeuterated detergents.Step changes that may transform the field include polymers, such as styrene maleic acid, which obviate the need for detergent altogether, and allow direct high yield purification from cells or membranes. Broader demand for NMR may be facilitated by MODA software, which instantly predicts membrane interactive residues that can subsequently be validated by NMR. In addition, recent developments in dynamic nuclear polarization NMR instrumentation offer a remarkable sensitivity enhancement from low molarity samples and cell surfaces. These advances illustrate the current capabilities and future potential of NMR for membrane protein structural biology and ligand discovery.

Keywords

High resolution NMR Solid state NMR Protein structure Protein interactions Membrane targets 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Biotechnology an Biological Sciences Research Council, Campus Alberta Innovates Program, the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council and the Wellcome Trust for funding.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Henry Wellcome Building for Biomolecular NMR Spectroscopy, School of Cancer SciencesUniversity of BirminghamEdgbaston, BirminghamUK
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, Department of BiochemistryUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada
  3. 3.School of Life SciencesUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK

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