Advertisement

Microbial Energy Conversion Technology

  • Basanta Kumara Behera
  • Ajit Varma
Chapter

Abstract

The green energy production begins with the photosynthetic fixation of CO2 into biomass and subsequent conversion of biomass by using microbes as biological catalyst to produce biofuels like ethanol, methane, hydrogen, biodiesel, relatively free from hazardous gases like any oxide of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. In addition, it has also been explained how the policymakers boost the nonconventional biofuels by implementing special laws to enforce in auto industries. This has been nicely narrated with some historical facts and figures to convince readers the positive impact of biofuels in public life. Present strategies on various types of biofuel production at commercial level have been depicted with facts and figures to convince the readers of the immediate possibility of exploiting sustainable microbial resources for successful utilization to manufacture green energy.

Keywords

Fossil Fuel Diesel Engine Microbial Fuel Cell Pulse Electric Field Treatment Algal Biofuel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Ajit V, Basant B (2003) Green energy (Biomass processing and technology). Capital Publishing Company, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Charles H, Durham NC (1952) Alcohol, culture, and society. Duke University Press (reprint edition by AMS Press, New York, 1970), pp 26–27. ISBN 978040409065Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gately I (2009) Drink: a cultural history of alcohol. Gotham Books Date published 2008. ISBN-13:9781592403035, ISBN: 1592403034Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chrzan J (2013) Alcohol: social drinking in cultural context. In: Robbins RH (ed) The Routledge series for creative teaching and learning in anthropology. Routledge Taylor and Francis, London. www.routledge.com/sociology
  5. 5.
    Gwavuya SG et al (2004) Fermented beverages of pre- and proto-historic China. Curr Issue 101:51Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vouillamoz José F et al (2006) Genetic characterization and relationships of traditional grape cultivars from Transcaucasia and Anatolia. Plant Genet Res 4:144–158. doi: 10.1079/PGR2006114, Retrieved 19 Mar 2015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cavalieri D et al (2003) Evidence for S. cerevisiae fermentation in ancient wine. J Mol Evol 57(Suppl 1):S226–S232. doi: 10.1007/s00239-003-0031-2, PMID 15008419. 15008419. Archived from the original on April 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-28CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    FAO Agricultural Services Bulletins (2007) Archived from the original on January 19, 2007. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fermentation_in_food_processing. Retrieved 28 Jan 2007
  9. 9.
    Dasgupta A (2011) The science of drinking: how alcohol affects your body and mind. Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD. ISBN: 1-4422-0409-5
  10. 10.
    Dirar H (1993) The indigenous fermented foods of the Sudan: a study in African food and nutrition. CAB International, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
    Sherwood Taylor F (1945) The evolution of the still. Ann Sci 5(3):186. doi: 10.1080/00033794500201451, ISSN 0003-3790Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    (1987) “Wine”. Easton’s Bible Dictionary. Thomas Nelson. www.ccel.org/e/easton/ebd/ebd3.htm. Retrieved 2007-01-22
  14. 14.
    Maurer L (2011) The unsolved mystery of Samuel Morey. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samuel_Morey
  15. 15.
    Nikolaus August Otto (2015) Inventor of the internal combustion engine. WikipediaGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    The History of Daimler-Benz. www.daimler.com
  17. 17.
    The Daimler-Benz Museum, Cannstatt, Germany. https://www.mercedes-benz.com/en/mercedes-benz/…/classic-overview/
  18. 18.
    Model T Facts (Press release). Ford, US. Retrieved 2013-04-23Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gordon JS (2007) 10 moments that made American business. americanheritage.com. Retrieved 2012-12-24
  20. 20.
    Garnero Mario (1983) Energia: o futuro é hoje. EdiçõesFórum das Américas, p 173Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Andrade L (2013) Honda comemora 3 milhões de motos flex produzidas com edição especial FlexOne [Honda commemorates 3 million flexible-fuel motorcycles produced with FlexOne special edition] (in Portuguese). Notícias Automotivas. Retrieved 2013-11-18Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Renewable Fuels Association (2013) New ethanol video released. DomesticFuel.com. Retrieved 2013-04-10Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Susanne Retka Schill (2012-10-17) GM, Ford announce E15 compatibility with new models. Ethanol Producer Magazine. Retrieved 2013-04-10Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    AssociaçãoBrasileira dos Fabricantes de Motocicletas, Ciclomotores, Motonetas, Bicicletas e Similares (ABRACICLO). Anúario da IndústriaBrasileira de DuasRodas 2013 [Two wheels Brazilian industry yearbook] (in Portuguese). ABRACICLO. Retrieved 2012-01-21Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Crescepresença de carros flex importados no mercadobrasileiro (in Portuguese). Direto da Usina. 2011-09-15. Retrieved 2012-01-22Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kotrba R (2008) Cold start 101. Ethanol Producer Magazine. Retrieved 2008-10-14Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lisa R, Hal T (2007) Sustainable automobile transport. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 40–41. ISBN 978-1-84720-451-6Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fernando Calmon (2013) Brasilchegaaos 20 milhões de motores flex, dizAnfavea [Brazil reaches 20 million flex fuel cars] (in Portuguese). UOL Carros. Retrieved 2013-11-18Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Andrade L (2013-10-08) Honda comemora 3 milhões de motos flex produzidas com edição especial FlexOne [Honda commemorates 3 million flexible-fuel motorcycles produced with FlexOne special edition] (in Portuguese). Notícias Automotivas. Retrieved 2013-11-17Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Motavalli J (2012-03-01) Flex-fuel amendment makes for strange bedfellows. The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-03-18Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Young K (2008-02-23) Biofuels help environment, but they’re hard to find. The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 2008-09-16Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    BAFF (2011) Bought ethanol cars. BioAlcohol Fuel Foundation (Click on the graph “Bought ethanol cars” showing total sales of E85 flexifuels by year since 2001). Retrieved 2012-03-18Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Diesel R (1890) Method of and apparatus for converting heat into work. USA patent No 542,845 patented July 1890Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Diesel R (1895) Internal combustion engine. USA patent No. 608,845, patented July 1895Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Chavanne G (2005) Procedure for the transformation of vegetable oils for their uses as fuels (Translation from Knothe, 2005) Belgian patent 422,877 (31 August 1937) Chem Abstr 32:4313 (1938)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mittelbach M, Remschmidt C (ed) (2004) Biodiesel—a comprehensive handbook Martin Mittelbach. Graz, Austria. Paperback, 512. ISBN: 3-200-00249-2Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Spencer A (2001) “A national report on America’s energy crisis,” remarks before the National Energy Summit, March 19, 2001. www.energy.gov. Accessed 24 Apr 2001
  38. 38.
    Harder R et al (1942) Die massenkultur von diatomeen. Berichte der DeutschenBotanischen Gesellschaft 60:146–152Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cook PM (1950) Large-scale culture of Chlorella. In: Brunel J, Prescott GW (eds) The culture of algae. Charles F. Kettering Foundation, Dayton, pp 53–77Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Burlew JS (ed) (1953) Algae culture: from laboratory to pilot plant. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC, pp 1–357Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Burlew JS (1953) Current status of large-scale culture of algae. In: Burlew JS (ed) Algal culture: from laboratory to pilot plant. Carnegie Institution, Washington, DC, pp 3–23Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gummert F et al (1953) Nonsterile large-scale culture of Chlorella in greenhouse and open air. In: Burlew JS (ed) Algal culture: from laboratory to pilot plant. Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC, pp 166–176Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mituya A, Nyunoya T, Tamiya H (1953) Pre-pilot-plant experiments on algal mass culture. In: Burlew JS (ed) Algal culture: from laboratory to pilot plant. Carnegie Institution, Washington, DC, pp 273–281Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Geoghegan MJ (1953) Experiments with Chlorella at Jealott’s Hill. In: Burlew JS (ed) Algal culture: from laboratory to pilot plant. Carnegie Institution, Washington, DC, pp 182–189Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Evenari M et al (1953) Experiments of culture of algae in Israel. In: Burlew JS (ed) Algal culture. From laboratory to pilot plant. Carnegie Institution, Washington, DC, pp 197–203Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Aach HG (1952) ÜberWachstum und Zusammensetzung von Chlorella pyrenoidosabeiunterschiedlichenLichtstärken und Nitratmengen. ArchivfürMikrobiologie 17:213. doi: 10.1007/BF00410827 Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Borowitzka MA (2013) Energy from microalgae: a short history. Algae for biofuels and energy. p 1.doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-5479-9_1. ISBN 978-94-007-5478-2
  48. 48.
    National Algal Biofuels Technology Roadmap (PDF). US Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Biomass Program. Retrieved 3 Apr 2014Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sheehan JT et al. (1998) A look back at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Aquatic Species Program—biodiesel from algae. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO. NREL/TP-580-24190, pp 1–328Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Oncel SS (2013) Microalgae for a macroenergy world. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 26:241. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2013.05.059 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yang J, Sommerfeld M, Chen YS et al (2010) Life-cycle analysis on biodiesel production from microalgae: water footprint and nutrients balance. Bioresour Technol 10:1016Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cornell CB (2008) First algae biodiesel plant goes online: 1 April 2008. Gas 2.0. Retrieved 10 June 2008Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dinh LTT et al (2009) Sustainability evaluation of biodiesel production using multicriteria decision-making. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 28:38. doi: 10.1002/ep.10335 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Greenwell HC et al (2009) Placing microalgae on the biofuels priority list: a review of the technological challenges. J R Soc Interface 7(46):703. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2009.0322 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hartman E (2008) A promising oil alternative: algae energy. The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 June 2008Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dyer G (2008) A replacement for oil. The Chatham Daily News. Retrieved 18 June 2008Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    US DOE (2012) National algal biofuels technology roadmap (United States Department of Energy, 2010). 5. USDA-NASS. http://www.nass.usda.gov. 6. US Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov (US Energy Information Administration)
  58. 58.
    US Energy Information Administration (2012) http://www.eia.gov (US Energy Information Administration)
  59. 59.
    Feldman S (2010) Algae fuel inches toward price parity with oil. Reuters (We’re hoping to be to be at parity with fossil fuel-based petroleum in the year 2017 or 2018, with the idea that we will be at several billions of gallons. Rosenthal told Solve Climate News in a phone interview). Retrieved 14 Feb 2011Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    (2013) Exxon at least 25 years away from making fuel from algae. Bloomberg, 8 Mar 2013Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Voegele E (2012) Propel, solazyme make algae biofuel available to the public. Biomass MagazineGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Herndon A (2013) Tesoro is first customer for Sapphire’s algae-derived crude oil. BloombergGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Lane J (2013) A replacement for oil. Biofuels Digest. Retrieved 26 Mar 2013Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tokuşoglu O, Uunal MK (2003) Biomass nutrient profiles of three microalgae: Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, and isochrysis galbana. J Food Sci 68(4):1144. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb09615.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Vonshak A (ed) (1997) Spirulina platensis (Arthrospira): physiology, cell-biology and biotechnology. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Mata TM et al (2010) Microalgae for biodiesel production and other applications: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 14:217. doi: 10.1016/j.rser.2009.07.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pultz O, Gross W (2004) Valuable products from biotechnology of microalgae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 65:635–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Penn State University, College of Agricultural Sciences (2014) A short history of anaerobic digestion. Available: http://extension.psu.edu/natural-resources/energy/waste-toenergy/resources/biogas/links/history-of-anaerobic-digestion/a-shorthistory-of-anaerobic-digestion
  69. 69.
    Bond T, Templeton MR (2011) History and future of domestic biogas plants in the developing world. Energy Sustain Dev 15:347–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Wikipedia (2014). Biogas. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biogas
  71. 71.
    Cheremisinoff NP, Cheremisinoff PN, Ellerbusch F (1980) Biomass applications, technology, and production. Marcel Dekker, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lewis C (1983) Biological fuels. Arnold Publishers, London, www.new-agri.co.uk Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Leapad (2014) A brief history of AD. Available: Biogas train in SwedenGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Biogas train in Sweden. www.treehugger.com › Energy › Renewable Energy
  75. 75.
    First biogas fueled train moves from coastal Sweden to the inland (2014) www.eltis.org/…/first-biogas-fueled-train-moves-coastal-sweden-inland-0
  76. 76.
    (2005) Friendly fuel trains. New Straits Times, p F17. Retrieved from https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title-Biogas&oldid-5159224
  77. 77.
    British Film Institute’s Database (1933) This database contains information collected by the BFI since 1933. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/British_Film_Institute
  78. 78.
    View online at National Film Board of Canada. https://www.youtube.com/user/nfb
  79. 79.
    Potts T et al (2012) The production of butanol from Jamaica Bay Macro Algae. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 31(1):29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gaffron H (1939) Reduction of CO2 with H2 in green plants. Nature 143:204–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gaffron H, Rubin J (1942) Fermentative and photochemical production of hydrogen in algae. J Gen Physiol 26:219–240CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Melis A, Happe T (2001) Hydrogen production. Green algae as a source of energy. Plant Physiol 127. www.plant.org. Accessed 3 Dec 2015—Published by www.plantphysiol.org
  83. 83.
    Gaffron H (1944) Photosynthesis, photoreduction and dark reduction of carbon dioxide in certain algae. Biol Rev Cambr Philos Soc 19:1–20Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Yongzhen T et al (2007) High hydrogen yield from a two-step process of dark- and photo-fermentation of sucrose. Int J Hydrog Energy 32:200–206. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2006.06.034.ISSN0360-3199 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    (2008) Algae could one day be major hydrogen fuel source newswise. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biological_hydrogen_production_(Algae). Retrieved 30 June 2008
  86. 86.
    Melis A, Happe T (2001) Hydrogen production. Green algae as a source of energy. Plant Physiol 127:740–748CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Potter MC (1911) Electrical effects accompanying the decomposition of organic compounds. R Soc (Formerly Proc R Soc) B, 84:260–276Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cohen B (1931) The bacterial culture as an electrical half-cell. J Bacteriol 21:18–19Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Del Duca MG et al (1963) Developments in industrial microbiology. American Institute of Biological Sciences 4:81–84Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Karube IT, Matasunga S et al (1976) Continuous hydrogen production by immobilized whole cells of Clostridium butyricum. Biochim Biophys Acta 24(2):338–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Isao K, Matsunaga T et al (1977) Biochemical cells utilizing immobilized cells of Clostridium butyricum. Biotechnol Bioeng 19:1727–1733. doi: 10.1002/bit.260191112 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    (2014) Brewing a sustainable energy solution. The University of Queensland Australia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microbial_fuel_cell. Retrieved 26 Aug 2014
  93. 93.
    (2015) ASTM approval of biofuels. www.biofuelsdigest.com/bdigest/tag/astm
  94. 94.
    Airlines Weigh the Advantages of Using More Biofuel (2011) www.transystems.com. News in Motion
  95. 95.
    IPCC Special Report on Global Emission (2011) www.nytimes.com/2011/10/10/business/global/10iht-green10.html
  96. 96.
    Boeing: The Boeing Company (2015) technology-could-result-in-a-. www.newairplane.com/environment/#/ecoDemonstrator/
  97. 97.
    Knothe G (2010) Biodiesel and renewable diesel: a comparison. Prog Energy Combust Sci 36:364–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Department of Energy—Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. … Alternative & Advanced Fuels—Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data (2012) https://www.fueleconomy.gov/feg/current.shtmlU.S
  99. 99.
    Assefa G, Frostell B (2007) Social sustainability and social acceptance in technology assessment: a case study of energy technologies. Technol Soc 29:63–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Devine-Wright P (2007) Reconsidering public attitudes and public acceptance of renewable energy technologies: a critical review, published by the School of. http://geography.exeter.ac.uk/beyond_nimbyism/deliverables/bn_wp1_4.pdf
  101. 101.
    Raven R et al (2010) From riches to rags: biofuels, media discourses, and resistance to sustainable energy technologies. Energy Policy 38:5013–5027CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Rohracher H (2010) Biofuels and their publics: the need for differentiated analyses and strategies. Future Science Group. Retrieved from http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Nr29yy5IGgQJ:www.ifz.tugraz.at/Media/Dateien/Downloads-IFZ/Team/Harald-Rohracher/Biofuels-and-their-publics-the-need-for-differentiated-analyses-
  103. 103.
    Jenssen T (2010) The good, the bad, and the ugly: acceptance and opposition as keys to bioenergy technologies. J Urban Technol. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com.ludwig.lub.lu.se/doi/pdf/10.1080/10630732.2010.515086
  104. 104.
    Savvanidou E et al (2010) Public acceptance of biofuels. Energy Policy 38:3482–3488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Delshed AB et al (2010) Public attitudes towards political and technological options for biofuels. Energy Policy 38:3414–3425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Wüstahagen R et al (2007) Social acceptance of renewable energy innovation: an introduction to the concept. Energy Policy 35:2683–2691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Jos GJ et al (2013) Trends in global CO2 emissions, 2013 Report. ©PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, The Hague. ISBN: 978-94-91506-51-2, PBL publication number: 1148, JRC Technical Note number: JRC83593, EUR number: EUR 26098 ENGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Liaquat AM et al (2010) Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries. Atmos Environ 44:3869–3877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    International Energy Agency Renewable Energy Medium Term Market Report (2014). From executive summary. http://www.iea.org/Textbase/npsum/MTrenew2014SUM.pdf
  110. 110.
    Domínguez JM (2012) Are biofuels socially accepted in guayaquil?—AgEcon. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/126881/2/Dominguez%20.pdf
  111. 111.
    Heinimo J, Junginer M (2009) Production and trading of biomass for energy—an overview of the global status. Biomass Bioenergy 33:1310–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    General Assembly Session 55, Meeting 3. 6 Sept 2000.www.mru.ac.ug/files/MILLINIUM_GOALS_SEMINAR.docx
  113. 113.
    General Assembly Session 55, Meeting 8. 8 Sept 2000. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millennium_Summit
  114. 114.
    Lamers P et al (2011) International bioenergy trade—a review of past developments in the liquid biofuel market. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15:2655–2676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sergio Barros (2012) Brazil biofuel annual report, foreign agriculture service, global agriculture information network (GAIN), U.S Department of Agriculture, Brazil Annual Report, 2012–2013, August 21, 2012, GAIN Report Number 2012013Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Junginger M et al (2008) Developments in international bioenergy trade. Biomass Bioenergy 32:717–729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    (2014) The sapphire story. www.forgottenbooks.com/readbook_text/The_Sapphire_Story. Retrieved 21 Apr 2014
  118. 118.
    Diversified Technology Inc (2013) http://www.semlerbrossy.com.sayonpay
  119. 119.
    Herndon A (2013) Tesoro is first customer for Sapphire’s algae-derived crude oil. Bloomberg. www.bloomberg.com/…/2013…20/tesoro-is-first-customer-for-sapphire
  120. 120.
    Piccolo T (2013) Origin oil’s bioreactor: a breakthrough in the production of oil from algae. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algae_fuel. Accessed 16 Jan 2013
  121. 121.
    Mantai KE, Bishop NI (1967) Studies on the effects of ultraviolet irradiation on photosynthesis and on the 520 nm light–dark difference spectra in green algae and isolated chloroplasts. Biochim Biophys Acta 131:350. doi: 10.1016/0005-2728(67)90148-X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Basanta Kumara Behera
    • 1
  • Ajit Varma
    • 1
  1. 1.Amity Institute of Microbial TechnologyAmity University Uttar PradeshNoidaIndia

Personalised recommendations