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Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Epilepsy

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Part of the Contemporary Clinical Neuroscience book series (CCNE)

Abstract

This review discusses the utilization of MR spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging for epilepsy from a clinical localization and research perspective. As a relatively common neurological problem that affects the entire age range, the understanding and management of epilepsy has benefited substantially from the recent past improvements in anatomical MRI quality and resolution. With multiple facets of epilepsy dysfunction identified metabolically and neurophysiologically, the sensitivity of metabolic and functional MR imaging to such processes suggest that continued MR development can be important as well. Metabolically and spectroscopically, much of the challenge for the most common type of clinical epilepsy (localization related) is the sizable interpatient variability for both location of abnormality and severity of injury as well as the need to adequately evaluate the neocortical ribbon. These factors combine to place emphasis on developments at high field for SNR and voxel size, acceleration, and adequate lipid suppression. From a basic science perspective, substantial work has shown that metabolic and cellular changes are well detected by MRS early and late in the process of epileptogenesis, consistent with major shifts in neuronal and astrocytic processes. Thus, the role of MR spectroscopy has much room to progress for clinical and research applications in epilepsy.

Keywords

Localization-related epilepsy Primary generalized epilepsy Medial temporal lobe Bioenergetics Glial/neuronal unit GABA Glutamate 

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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicinePittsburghUSA

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