Advertisement

Sustainability Field Exercises in Rural Areas: Applying the Community Marginalization Framework to Examine Qualitative Changes in Rural Communities

  • Shogo KudoEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Rural areas in Japan are facing a critical challenge to their sustainability due to aging and depopulation. These demographic changes have been causing drastic declines in the quality of the living environment, resource management, and social vitality of rural communities. The aims of the present chapter are (i) to discuss the sustainability of rural areas by analyzing the depopulation process of rural communities with respect to their community-functions , and (ii) to address the methodological challenge to examine the sustainability of the target system by applying the community marginalization framework. In this study, the sustainability of a rural area is set as the totality of the self-managing capability of individual communities . To discuss the sustainability of the target system , the methodology employed should be able to examine the changes that occur over time within the system. This chapter showcases how to apply the community marginalization framework in a sustainability science field study, which allows the illustration of qualitative changes in rural communities as they experience population declines over a period of time. The case study was composed of a questionnaire survey to all households in the village. The data collected were analyzed based on five community groups , which were defined by their population sizes. Findings suggested that there is a clear divergence in the process of functional declines among community groups. Especially, communities with less than 40 residents are significantly restricted, regarding their access to basic services , income satisfaction, and the formation of local groups . Moreover, the methodology applied depicted continuing future declining demographic trajectories for the communities with greater than 40 residents, highlighting the severe problems that are being faced by the entire study area.

Keywords

Population aging Depopulation Community marginalization framework Rural communities 

References

  1. Atterton, J. (2008). Demographics of the ageing rural population. Working with Older People, 12(3), 5. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.11.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bijak, J., Kupiszewska, D., Kupiszewski, M., & Saczuk, K. (2005). Impact of international migration and population dynamics and labour force resrouces in Europe (No. 1). Warsaw. Retrieved from http://www.cefmr.pan.pl/docs/cefmr_wp_2005-01.pdf.
  3. Bongaarts, J. (2004). Population aging and the rising cost of public pensions. Population and Development Review, 30(1), 1–23. doi: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2004.00001.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burholt, V., & Naylor, D. (2005). The relationship between rural community type and attachment to place for older people living in North Wales, UK. European Journal of Ageing, 2(2), 109–119. doi: 10.1007/s10433-005-0028-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Champion, T. (1989). Counterurbanization the changing pace and nature of population deconcentration. Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  6. Crampton, A. (2009). Global aging: Emerging challenges. The Pardee Papers, (6). Retrieved from http://www.bu.edu/pardee/files/2009/09/pardee_aging-6-global-aging.pdf.
  7. Crandall, M., & Etuk, L. (2008). Whta is community vitality? Retrieved August 17, 2015, from http://oregonexplorer.info/content/what-community-vitality.
  8. Eberstadt, N. (2012). Japan shrinks. The Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 30–37. Retrieved from http://www.wilsonquarterly.com/essays/japan-shrinks.
  9. EC. (2009). Ageing report : Economic and budgetary projections for the EU-27 member states (2008–2060). European economy. Luxembourg. doi: 10.2765/80301.
  10. Economic Policy Committee and European Commission. (2006). European economy the impact of ageing on public expenditure: Projectories for the EU25 member states on pensions, health care, long-term care, education and unemployment transfers (2004–2050). Health Care.Google Scholar
  11. Farrington, J., & Farrington, C. (2005). Rural accessibility, social inclusion and social justice: Towards conceptualisation. Journal of Transport Geography, 13(1), 1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2004.10.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fujita, Y. (2005). コミュニティ・ビジネスが切り拓く地域づくりの可能性 (The potential for regional development through community business). Tottori University Journal of the Faculty of Regional Sciences, 2(1), 11–27.Google Scholar
  13. Hall, C. (2004). What does the public want from agriculture and the countryside? A review of evidence and methods. Journal of Rural Studies, 20(2), 211–225. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2003.08.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hayashi, N. (2011). 過疎集落からはじまる戦略的な構築と撤退 (Strategic reorganization beginning with a depopulated village). Journal of Rural Planning Association, 29(4), 418–421. Retrieved from https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/arp/29/4/29_4_418/_article.
  15. Heenan, D. (2010). Social capital and older people in farming communities. Journal of Aging Studies, 24(1), 40–46. doi: 10.1016/j.jaging.2008.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hugo, G., & Moren-Alegret, R. (2008). International migration to Non-metropolitan areas of higer income Countries. Population, Space and Place, 477, 473–477. doi: 10.1002/psp.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Inaba, H. (2006). Measurement analysis of the cultivated acreage and abandoned cultivated lands (in Japanese). Economic Journal of Chiba University, 20(4), 79–106.Google Scholar
  18. Ishimaru, N. (2009). 限界集落といわれている集落における耕作放棄地に関する研究 (A study on the situation of abandoned cultivated land in the village, so-called squeezed village—in a case of Soradani District, Aki-Oota-cho, Hiroshima Prefecture). Architectural Institute of Japan NII-Electronic Library Service, 32, 4.Google Scholar
  19. Kalantaridis, C. (2010). In-migration, entrepreneurship and rural–urban interdependencies: The case of East Cleveland, North East England. Journal of Rural Studies, 26(4), 418–427. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2010.03.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kasamatsu, H. (2009). 小規模高齢化集落の再生にむけて(For regenerations of small scale and aging hamlets). Bulletin of the Shimane Prefecture Mountainous Region Research Center, 5, 73–76. Retrieved from http://www.pref.shimane.lg.jp/admin/region/kikan/chusankan/syoseki/research/No5_kenkyuhoukoku.data/kenkyuhoukokudai5gou08.pdf.
  21. Klinthäll, M. (2006). Retirement return migration from Sweden. International Migration, 44(2), 28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Komiyama, H., & Takeuchi, K. (2006). Sustainability science: Building a new discipline. Sustainability Science, 1(1), 1–6. doi: 10.1007/s11625-006-0007-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kudo, S., Mutisya, E., & Nagao, M. (2015). Population aging: An emerging research Agenda for sustainable development. Social Sciences, 4(4), 940–966. doi: 10.3390/socsci4040940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kudo, S., & Yarime, M. (2013). Divergence of the sustaining and marginalizing communities in the process of rural aging: a case study of Yurihonjo-shi, Akita, Japan. Sustainability Science, 8(4), 491–513. doi: 10.1007/s11625-012-0197-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lee, S.-H., Mason, A., & Park, D. (2011). Why does population aging matter so much for Asia? Population aging, economic growth, and economic security in Asia. Manila. Retrieved from http://www.adb.org/publications/why-does-population-aging-matter-so-much-asia-population-aging-economic-growth-and-econ.
  26. Lovett, A., Haynes, R., Sünnenberg, G., & Gale, S. (2002). Car travel time and accessibility by bus to general practitioner services: A study using patient registers and GIS. Social Science and Medicine, 55(1), 97–111. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12137192.
  27. Lowe, P., & Speakman, L. (2006). The greying countryside. In The aging countryside the growing Older (Ed.), Population of Rural England (pp. 9–28). London: Age Concern England.Google Scholar
  28. MacKellar, F. L. (2000). The predicament of population aging: A review essay *. Population and Development Review, 26(2), 365–404. doi: 10.1111/j.1728-4457.2000.00365.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Marsden, T., & Sonnino, R. (2008). Rural development and the regional state: Denying multifunctional agriculture in the UK. Journal of Rural Studies, 24(4), 422–431. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2008.04.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McManus, P., Walmsley, J., Argent, N., Baum, S., Bourke, L., &, Martin, J., et al. (2012). Rural community and rural resilience: What is important to farmers in keeping their country towns alive? Journal of Rural Studies, 28(1), 20–29. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2011.09.003.
  31. Mitchell, C. (2004). Making sense of counterurbanization. Journal of Rural Studies, 20(1), 15–34. doi: 10.1016/S0743-0167(03)00031-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. MLIT. (2011). Long-term Outlook 2011.Google Scholar
  33. Morgan, S. L., Marsden, T., Miele, M., & Morley, A. (2010). Agricultural multifunctionality and farmers’ entrepreneurial skills: A study of Tuscan and Welsh farmers. Journal of Rural Studies, 26(2), 116–129. doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2009.09.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Morii, J. (1995). 高度成長と農山村過疎 (The Rapid economic growth and the decline of rural areas) (1st ed.). Kyoto: Bunrikaku.Google Scholar
  35. Muramatsu, N., & Akiyama, H. (2011). Japan: Super-aging society preparing for the future. The Gerontologist, 51(4), 425–32. doi: 10.1093/geront/gnr067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Niinuma, S. (2009). Considerations on the maintenance of village functions and the sustainability of residents’ daily lives at “Marginal Settlements”: The case of settlement M of Hinohara-Mura, Tokyo. E-Journal GEO, 4(1), 21–36. Retrieved from http://wwwsoc.nii.ac.jp/ajg/ejgeo/412136Niinuma.pdf.
  37. Nishino, T. (2010). Reorganization of mountain villages of Japan in the early 21st century (in Japanese). Bulletin of Institute for Research of Regional Economy, 46(1), 50–66.Google Scholar
  38. Noguchi, K., Sato, S., Kobayashi, Y., Himeno, Y., Siiba, N., & Terada, M. (2010). Classification and characteristics of village by living environment evaluation -living environment and the Sphere in Saiki City, Part1- (in Japanese). The Japan Association of Economic Geographers, 3–4. Retrieved from http://ci.nii.ac.jp/els/110008112674.pdf?id=ART0009637691&type=pdf&lang=jp&host=cinii&order_no=&ppv_type=0&lang_sw=&no=1335239391&cp.
  39. Odagiri, T. (2009). 農村再生 (Regenerating agricultural communities in mountainous regions). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
  40. Odagiri, T. (2011). 集落再生 (Regeneration of rural communities). Tokyo: Gyousei.Google Scholar
  41. Ono, A. (1991). 山村の高齢化と限界集落 (Aging in mountain villages and marginal community). Keizai, 327, 55–71.Google Scholar
  42. Ono, A. (2008). 限界集落と地域再生 (Marginal community and regional regeneration). Kouchi: Kochi shinbunsha.Google Scholar
  43. Preston, J., & Rajé, F. (2007). Accessibility, mobility and transport-related social exclusion. Journal of Transport Geography, 15(3), 151–160. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2006.05.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sakuno, H. (2006). 中山間地域における地域問題と集落の対応 (The Problems and expectations of regional development in hilly-mountainous region and correspondence of rural settlements). The Japan Association of Economic Geographers, 52, 46–64.Google Scholar
  45. Sasaki, H., Koyama, K., & Matsuura, S. (2007). 耕作放棄地の分布と潜在生産力の推定(Geographical distribution and potential grass productivity of abandoned cultivated land in Japan). Japanese Society of Grassland Science, 53(3), 189–194.Google Scholar
  46. Senno, M. (2013). 人口減少社会「元年」は,いつか? “When was the first year of population declining society?” Retrieved January 10, 2014, from http://www.stat.go.jp/info/today/009.htm.
  47. Shinobe, H., & Miyachi, T. (2012). 空き家の解体除去施策の現状と課題-西日本の地方自治体を事例として (The present conditions and problems of the demolition clearance policies of vacant houses). AIJ Journal of Technology and Design, 18(39), 709–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shrestha, L. B. (2000). Population aging in developing countries. Health Affairs, 19(3), 10. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.19.3.204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith, N., Hirsch, D., & Davis, A. (2012). Accessibility and capability: the minimum transport needs and costs of rural households. Journal of Transport Geography, 21, 93–101. doi: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2012.01.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Statistics Bureau of Japan. (2011). National Census 2010; Executive Summary. Tokyo. Retrieved from http://www.stat.go.jp/data/kokusei/2010/kihon1/pdf/youyaku.pdf.
  51. Stockdale, A. (2006). The Role of a “ Retirement Transition” in the Repopulation of Rural Areas. Wiley InterScience, 13, 1–13. doi: 10.1002/psp.Google Scholar
  52. Stockdale, A. (2011). A review of demographic ageing in the UK: Opportunities for Rural research. Wiley Online Library, 221(October 2009), 204–221. doi: 10.1002/psp.
  53. Takegawa, T. (2010). 過疎農山村における高齢者の生活実態と地域福祉の課題-鳥取県日南町における生活実態調査報告- (A study of living conditions of elderly people in depopulating rural districts and challenges of community care: A survey report on living conditions in Nichinan Town, Tottori Prefecture). Tottori University Journal of the Faculty of Regional Sciences, 7(1), 2–22.Google Scholar
  54. Thang, L. L. (2011). Population aging, older workers and productivity issues: the case of Singapore. Journal of Comparative Social Welfare, 27(1), 17–33. doi: 10.1080/17486831.2011.532946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tsukada, S. (1997). The revival potential of agriculture and farm villages in Japan (in Japanese). Association of Economic Geographers, 43(4), 18–33.Google Scholar
  56. Tsutsui, K., Ebihara, Y., Zushi, N., & Sakuma, Y. (2008). Survey report on a rural community development internship program in Kawamata Town, Fukushima Prefecture (in Japanese). Tottori University Journal of the Faculty of Regional Sciences, 5(2), 85–96.Google Scholar
  57. Ueda, K. (2007). About a “Preservation” of traditional dance in a depopulated community: A case study of a “Preservation” of Taiko-Odori in Kajiwata, Kumamoto Prefecture (in Japanese). Journal of Rural Studies (Japanese), 14(1), 13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. UN. (2009). World Population Ageing 2009. New York. Retrieved from http://www.academicroom.com/book/world-population-ageing-2009.
  59. UNFPA. (2012). Ageing in the twenty-first century: A celebration and a challenge. Ageing in society: An introduction to social gerontology. New York. Retrieved from http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/publications/2012/UNFPA-Exec-Summary.pdf.
  60. WEF. (2012). Global population ageing: Peril or promise? Geneva. Retrieved from http://www.weforum.org/reports/global-population-ageing-peril-or-promise.
  61. Werblow, A., Felder, S., & Zweifel, P. (2007). Population ageing and health care expenditure: a school of “red herrings”? Health Economics, 1126(February), 1109–1126. doi: 10.1002/hec.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Yusa, T., Goto, K., Kurauchi, D., & Murakami, K. (2006). 中山間地域における空き家およびその管理の実態に関する研究-山梨県早川町を事例として- (Vacant houses and their management in hilly rural areas—a case study in Hayakawa Town, Yamanashi Prefecture). Journal of Architecture and Planning2, (601), 111–118.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Program in Sustainability Science-Global Leadership Initiative, Graduate School of Frontier SciencesThe University of TokyoKashiwa, ChibaJapan

Personalised recommendations