Influence of Aging on Short- and Long-Term Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Heart Failure

  • Agostino Accardo
  • Federica De DeaEmail author
  • Martino Cinquetti
  • Marco Merlo
  • Gianfranco Sinagra
Conference paper
Part of the IFMBE Proceedings book series (IFMBE, volume 57)


Along the last years, the number of HRV studies has been widely grown. The computation of HRV linear and non-linear parameters allows the quantification of the cardiac frequency modulation and of the possible link between them and different pathologies. In the literature, significant variations of HRV linear and non-linear parameters are described, with the focus on age related changes in healthy subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possible presence of age related changes in HRV parameters in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. The RR time series extracted from 80 CHF patients, divided by age into two groups, have been accurately analyzed. The results point out a linear influence of age on characteristic parameters extracted from these patients; the behaviors of these parameters are opposite to the literature results obtained in healthy subjects. We hypothesize that this discrepancy may be due to the RR data selection and to their pre-processing phase as well as to some clinical factors as the neuro hormonal imbalance characteristic of the CHF disease that often produces a sympathetic activation.


Heart Rate Variability Aging Spectral analysis Fractal analysis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology (1996) Heart rate variability: standards of measurement, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Circulation 93:1043–65.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Huikuri HV, Stein PK (2013) Heart rate variability in risk stratification of cardiac patients. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 56:153–159Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ruifu Z., Dan L., Ping Z. et al. (2015), Influences of age, gender, and circadian rhythm on deceleration capacity in subjects without evident heart disease. Annals of Noninvasive Electrocardiology 20: 158-166.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bonnemeier H, Wiegand UKH, Brandes A et al. (2003) Circadian profile of cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy subjects: Differing effects of aging and gender on heart rate variability. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 14:791-799Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Voss, R. Schroeder, A. Heitmann et al. (2015) ShortTerm Heart Rate Variability Influence of Gender and Age in Healthy Subjects. PLoS One. 10(3): e0118308Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Abhishekh, Nisarga, Kisan et al. (2013) Influence of age and gender on autonomic regulation of heart. J Clin Monit Comput, 27(3): 259-64Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Heikki V.H., Phyllis K. S.(2013), Heart rate variability in risk stratification of cardiac patients. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 56: 153-159Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wu GQ, Arzeno NM, Shen LL et al. (2009) Chaotic signatures of heart rate variability and its power spectrum in health, aging and heart failure. PLoS One 4(2): e4323.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sunkaria RK (2011) Recent trends in nonlinear methods of HRV analysis: A review. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 51:565-570Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Haaksma J, Dijk WA, Brouwer J et al. (1995) Effects of automatic ectopy exclusion on the analysis of Heart Rate Variability using a percentile exclusion rule, Proc. of the 1995 Conference on Computers in Cardiology, Vienna, Austria, 197-200Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mateo J, Laguna P (2000) Improved heart rate variability signal analysis from the beat occurrence times according to the IPFM model. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 47:985-996.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Peltola MA, Seppanen T, Makikallio TH et al. (2004) Effects and Significance of Premature Beats on Fractal Correlation Properties of R-R Interval Dynamics. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 9:127-135Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pagani M, Lombardi F, Guzzetti S et al. (1984) Power spectral density of heart rate variability as an index of sympatho-vagal interaction in normal and hypertensive subjects. J Hypertens Suppl. 2:S383-5.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Higuchi T (1988) Approach to an irregular time series on the basis of the fractal theory. Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena 31:277-283Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Accardo A, Cusenza M, De Felice A et al. (2012) Ultradian rhythms during day and night in normal and COPD subjects. Stud Health Technol Inform. 180:1120-2.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ryan SM, Goldberger AL, Pincus SM et al., (1994) Gender and age related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men? J Am Coll Cardiol; 24: 1700–1707Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goldberger AL, Amaral LAN, Hausdorff JM et al. (2002) Fractal dynamics in physiology: Alterations with disease and aging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:2466-2472Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Fornasa E, Accardo A, Ajčević, M et al. (2015): Impact of Aging on Heart Rate Variability Properties of Healthy Subjects, IFMBE Proc. Vol. 45, 6th European Conference of the IFMBE, Dubrovnik, Croatia, 2014, 448-451Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    McMurray JJ, Adamopoulos S, Anker SD et al. (2012), ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure 2012: The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute and Chronic Heart Failure 2012 of the European Society of Cardiology. Developed in collaboration with the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC. Eur Heart J, 33(14):1787-847Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Agostino Accardo
    • 1
  • Federica De Dea
    • 1
    Email author
  • Martino Cinquetti
    • 2
  • Marco Merlo
    • 2
  • Gianfranco Sinagra
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Engineering and ArchitectureUniversity of TriesteTriesteItaly
  2. 2.Cardiovascular DepartmentOspedali Riuniti and University of TriesteTriesteItaly

Personalised recommendations