Securitizing the Ethno-Religious Identity(s): Exploring Islamophobia as Pakophobia
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This chapter explores the hyper-securitization of the Muslim Pakistani, illustrating how experiences of Islamophobia differ across Muslim communities, determined by the prevailing security discourse that implicates not just the religious identity, but also different ethnic identities. The chapter focuses on Pakistani Muslim females in Britain, who highlight the phenomenon of ‘Pakophobia’ as a form of Islamophobia experienced at a point when the AfPak problem was at its peak, with the Pakistani identity particularly prominent. The chapter also discusses Pakophobia in relation to student activism in the case of the Justice for the North West 10 (J4NW10) campaign and campaigns for Palestine, revealing how the ethnic connection can be a source of greater vulnerability when placed within a hyper-securitized discourse.
KeywordsMuslim Woman Muslim Community Muslim Student Pakistani Woman South Asian Community
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